Achromobacter xylosoxidans—An Unusual Cause of Monomicrobial Nonneutrocytic Bacterascites: A Case ReportSrinivas, Jampala MD*; Dinesh, Kavitha R. MD*; Kumar, Anil MD*; Siyad, Ismail MD, DM†; Karim, Shamsul MD*Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: July 2014 - Volume 22 - Issue 4 - p e30–e31 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0b013e31829104d1 Case Reports Abstract Author Information Monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP), the variants of ascitic fluid infection, are commonly seen in association with liver cirrhosis. Monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites may progress rapidly to SBP resulting in increased morbidity and mortality in advanced liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension. The most common pathogens associated with both conditions are gram-negative bacilli like Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by gram-positive bacteria. We present a case of monomicrobial nonneutrocytic bacterascites in a chronic alcoholic patient with advanced liver cirrhosis, due to an unusual pathogen, Achromobacter xylosoxidans. This case is remarkable as A xylosoxidans is not associated with SBP until now as per available literature. From the Departments of *Microbiology and †Gastroenterology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi, Kerala, India. Correspondence to: Jampala Srinivas, MD, Department of Microbiology, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Kochi 682041, Kerala. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.