Differential Diagnosis of a Patient With Rhomboencephalitis: Case StudyMichael, L. Madison MD*; Mazumder, Shirin A. MD†; Gelfand, Michael S. MD†Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice: March 2011 - Volume 19 - Issue 2 - p 134-136 doi: 10.1097/IPC.0b013e3181f47394 Case Reports Abstract Author Information Rhomboencephalitis is a rare and severe infection that frequently presents as progressive brainstem dysfunction. Most cases reported in the medical literature are associated with a positive and specific microbial etiology that is clearly documented by blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or brain tissue culture. However, some patients with rhomboencephalitis have a negative culture workup, which can lead to a delay in treatment initiation as a differential diagnosis is made. Because a high mortality rate has been associated with a delay in antibiotic therapy for patients with rhomboencephalitis, an improved index of suspicion is needed for early diagnosis. Recently, the authors cared for a patient with a culture-negative rhomboencephalitis that was successfully treated with empiric antibiotic management. The patient was a 36-year-old woman with symptoms of fever, nausea, and dysphagia. Imaging revealed a right-sided intra-axial contrast-enhancing lesion at the pontomedullary junction, but an exhaustive laboratory and imaging workup failed to reveal a definite etiology. The patient was then given a 6-week course of meropenem, linezolid, and acyclovir to cover possible pathogens, and she ultimately made a complete neurological recovery. From the *Semmes-Murphey Neurologic and Spine Institute, Memphis, TN and †Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN. Correspondence to: Shirin A. Mazumder, MD, Suite H308, 956 Court Ave, Memphis, TN 38163. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. The authors have no funding or conflicts of interest to disclose. © 2011 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.