In this study, we aimed to explore the effects of sitagliptin on diabetic nephropathy using an experimental animal model while referring to various aspects of the Dipeptidyl peptidase- IV inhibitors literature findings.
27 male BKS.Cg- + Leprdb/+ Lepr/+ OlaHsd mice, 8 weeks old, were evenly separated into three groups. For 12 weeks, group D and L received a high (200 mg/Kgr/day) and low (10 mg/kg/day) dosage of sitagliptin, respectively, while group N did not receive any treatment. Biochemical tests on urinary and blood samples of each animal as well as histopathological examination for specific lesions of the kidneys were performed at the end of the experimental study.
Both high (D) and low (L) sitagliptin dosage were found to significantly reduce serum glucose, microalbumin, and albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) when compared with the control group, while high sitagliptin dose, additionally, showed a significant reduction of urinary creatinine (P < 0.01). Moreover, sitagliptin had a positive effect on histopathology findings; sitagliptin significantly reduced moderate/severe mesangial matrix expansion (P < 0.001 for both groups), thickening of the basal membrane, vascular pole hyalinosis capsule cell hyperplasia, and thickening of the Bowman’s capsule compared with control group.
Sitagliptin appears to improve the biochemical parameters regarding kidney function and acts beneficially by reducing the extent of renal histopathological damage caused by DM.