The planning and design of any incision in the esthetic zone should be carried out based on biologic principles and with careful consideration of the desired esthetic outcome. Different incision and flap designs have been identified for implant and implant-related surgeries in the esthetic zone. Those include; flapless, vestibular incision, papilla sparing, envelope, triangular, and trapezoidal. The specific aim of this article is to outline various important factors that influence healing, to discuss the advantages/disadvantages of several key incision/flap designs, and to help guide the clinician in treatment planning tooth replacement in the esthetic zone.
*Graduate Resident, Department of Periodontics, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Georgia, GA.
†Graduate Resident, College of Allied Health, Medical Illustration, Augusta University, Georgia, GA.
‡Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, Georgia, GA.
Reprint requests and correspondence to: Jacob Kobi Stern, DMD, MSc, Department of Periodontics, Dental College of Georgia, Augusta University, 1120 15th Street, GC-1340, Augusta, GA 30912, Phone: 706-721-2441, Fax: 706-723-0215, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org