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Effect of Implant Thread Geometry on Secondary Stability, Bone Density, and Bone-to-Implant Contact : A Biomechanical and Histological Analysis

Trisi, Paolo DDS, PhD*; Berardini, Marco DDS; Falco, Antonello DDS, PhD; Vulpiani, Michele Podaliri VMD

doi: 10.1097/ID.0000000000000269
Basic and Clinical Research

Purpose: This study evaluated the effect of 2 different thread designs on secondary stability (micromotion) and osseointegration rate in dense and cancellous bones.

Materials and Methods: Forty large threaded and 40 small threaded implants (Cortex) were placed in low- (iliac crest) and high-density (mandible) bone of sheep. Two months later, micromobility tests and histological analysis were performed to measure secondary stability, osseointegration (bone-to-implant contact percentage [%BIC]), and bone density (bone volume percentage [%BV]). The value of actual micromotion of implant is introduced as a new parameter to evaluate secondary stability.

Results: Large threaded implants showed significantly higher %BIC and %BV than small threaded implants in low-density bone and statistically higher secondary stability in cancellous and cortical bones.

Conclusions: Implants in dense bone reach higher secondary stability than those in cancellous bone, despite the lower %BIC. Implant geometry and bone density play a key role in secondary stability. Large thread design improves bone anchorage mechanically and histologically as compared with small threaded implants.

*Scientific Director, Biomaterial Clinical Research Association; Private Practice, Pescara, Italy.

Biomaterial Clinical Research Association, Pescara, Italy; Private Practice, Pescara, Italy.

“G. Caporale” Institute, Teramo, Italy.

Reprint requests and correspondence to: Marco Berardini, DDS, Via Galilei 8, 65122 Pescara, Italy, Phone: +39 85 7933050, Fax: +39 85 7933050, E-mail:

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