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Anterior Maxillary and Mandibular Biotype: Relationship Between Gingival Thickness and Width With Respect to Underlying Bone Thickness

Pascual La Rocca, Andres DDS*; Santos Alemany, Antonio MD, MSc*; Levi, Paul Jr DMD; Vicario Juan, Monica DDS*; Nart Molina, Jose DDS; Weisgold, Arnold S. DDS§

doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e318271d487
Basic and Clinical Research

Purpose: Periodontal biotype is considered to be a significant factor related to successful dental treatments. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between gingival thickness (GT) and width with respect to the underlying bone thickness in the maxillary and mandibular anterior sextant.

Materials and Methods: Overall, 180 anterior teeth within healthy patients were assessed. GT and buccal bone thickness (BT) were measured at 3 locations: crestal/gingival margin, tooth apex, and a midpoint between the 2. In addition, the apicoincisal gingival width (GW) was recorded. Clinical and cone beam CT measurements were compared and correlated.

Results: No statistically significant relations were observed between GT and BT measures at any of the 3 positions. The mean GT at crestal mid and apical position for the maxillary teeth was 1.01 (±0.58) mm, 1.06 (±0.48) mm, and 0.83 (±0.47) mm, respectively, and the corresponding mean BT was 1.24 (±0.90) mm, 0.81 (±0.33) mm, and 2.78 (±1.62) mm, respectively. The GW is directly related (R = 0.007; P < 0.05) to the crestal BT.

Conclusion: In this study, the GT is not linked to the BT. However, the GW seems to be associated with the crestal BT.

*Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

Associate Professor, Department of Periodontics, Tuft University, Boston, MA.

Chairman, Department of Periodontics, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Barcelona, Spain.

§Adjunct Professor, Department of Periodontics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.

Reprint requests and correspondence to: Andres Pascual La Rocca, DDS, Department de Periodoncia, Universidad Internacional de Catalunya, Josep Trueta, s/n 08195 Sant Cugat del Vallés, Barcelona 08195, Spain, Phone: +34-935-042-000, Fax: +34-935-042-001, E-mail:

© 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.