With an attempt at achieving faster osseointegration to hasten the overall treatment process, the use of biomimetic agents represents a growing area of research in implant dentistry. This study outlines 4 categories of bioactive agents that may be applied to coat the titanium implant surface: (1) biocompatible ceramics, (2) bioactive proteins, (3) ions, and (4) polymers, and their respective importance in the early stages of osseointegration. The potential bioactive agents investigated include bone morphogenetic proteins, growth factors, type I collagen, RGD peptide, fluoride, or chitosan, among others. The ideal characteristics that biomimetic agents should uphold and factors that may influence their effectiveness are reviewed. They include implant surface texture, time-oriented delivery vehicleand the ability of the agent to reach a target. Some of these agents, such as bioceramics (calcium phosphate salts) or ions (fluoride) are already commercially available and have shown clinical success. Others such as bone morphogenetic proteins are very promising, with an excellent therapeutic potential. A specific implant surface coating may enhance the percentage of bone-to-implant contact as well as speed of osseointegration that allows clinicians to overcome many challenging clinical scenarios.
*Graduate Periodontics Resident, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
†Assistant Professor, Oral Surgery Department, School of Dentistry, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.
‡Professor and Director of Graduate Periodontics, Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.
Reprint requests and correspondence to: Hom-Lay Wang, DDS, MSD, PhD; Professor and Director of Graduate Periodontics; Department of Periodontics and Oral Medicine; School of Dentistry, University of Michigan; 1101 N. University, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1078; Phone: 734-763-3383; Fax: 734-936-0374; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org