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Cannabis Sativa Smoke Inhalation Decreases Bone Filling Around Titanium Implants: A Histomorphometric Study in Rats

Nogueira-Filho, Getulio da R. DDS, MS, PhD*; Cadide, Tiago DDS; Rosa, Bruno T. DDS; Neiva, Tiago G. DDS§; Tunes, Roberto DDS; Peruzzo, Daiane DDS, MS; Nociti, Francisco Humberto Jr DDS, MS, PhD#; César-Neto, João B. DDS, MS, PhD**

doi: 10.1097/ID.0b013e31818c5a2a
Basic and Clinical Research

Purpose: Although the harmful effect of tobacco smoking on titanium implants has been documented, no studies have investigated the effects of cannabis sativa (marijuana) smoking. Thus, this study investigated whether marijuana smoke influences bone healing around titanium implants.

Materials: Thirty Wistar rats were used. After anesthesia, the tibiae surface was exposed and 1 screw-shaped titanium implant was placed bilaterally. The animals were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: control (n = 15) and marijuana smoke inhalation (MSI) 8 min/d (n = 15). Urine samples were obtained to detect the presence of tetra-hidro-cannabinoid. After 60 days, the animals were killed. The degree of bone-to-implant contact and the bone area within the limits of the threads of the implant were measured in the cortical (zone A) and cancellous bone (zone B).

Results: Tetra-hidro-cannabinoid in urine was positive only for the rats of MSI group. Intergroup analysis did not indicate differences in zone A-cortical bone (P > 0.01), however, a negative effect of marijuana smoke (MSI group) was observed in zone B-cancellous bone for bone-to-implant contact and bone area (Student's t test, P < 0.01) values.

Conclusions: Considering the limitations of the present study, the deleterious impact of cannabis sativa smoke on bone healing may represent a new concern for implant success/failure.

*Associate Professor, Director of Grad Periodontics Program, Division of Periodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada.

†Private Practice, Salvador, Brazil.

‡Master of Dentistry Student, Bahian Science Foundation—EPMSP, Salvador, Brazil.

§Graduate Student, Division of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

∥Master of Dermatology Student, Bahian Science Foundation, EBMSP, Salvador, Brazil.

¶PhD Student, Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, Division of Periodontics, School of Dentistry, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

#Associate Professor, Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontics, UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

**Assistant Professor, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, RS, Brazil.

Reprint requests and correspondence to:

João Batista César Neto, DDS, MS, PhD; Division of Periodontics; School of Dentistry—UFPel; Rua Major Cícero de Góes Monteiro; 91/301, Centro, 96015-190 Pelotas; RS, Brazil; E-mail:

© 2008 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.