Clinical StudiesEvaluation of Checkpoint Inhibitors in Cancer Patients With End-stage Renal Disease on Hemodialysis: Case Series and Review of the LiteratureJain, Jayanshu*; Stein, Jill†; Garje, Rohan*,‡Author Information Department of *Internal Medicine †Pharmaceutical Care ‡Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology, Oncology, Blood and Marrow Transplantation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA J.J.: Data collection, literature review, writing original draft. J.S.: manuscript review and editing. R.G.: conceptualization, manuscript writing and editing. Reprints: Rohan Garje, 200 Hawkins Drive, C-32 GH, Iowa City, IA 52246 (e-mail: email@example.com). Journal of Immunotherapy: October 2020 - Volume 43 - Issue 8 - p 244-249 doi: 10.1097/CJI.0000000000000327 Buy Metrics Abstract Checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) have become standard of care for multiple types of malignancies and while end-stage renal disease is not a contraindication, these patients are frequently excluded from clinical trials. As a result, there is limited data regarding the safety and efficacy of CPI use in this patient population. In this case series, we report outcomes and adverse events in 8 patients on hemodialysis treated with CPIs. Treatment was overall well-tolerated with adverse events in 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients, with 1 (12.5%) having a grade 4 adverse event, which is comparable to the rate reported in literature for the overall population receiving CPI. No treatment related deaths were seen. Because of small sample size, efficacy data is limited. Further studies are needed in this patient population to elucidate the true incidence of adverse events and antitumor activity. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.