Understanding Microbiome Effect on Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Lung Cancer Placing the Puzzle Pieces TogetherSwami, Umang; Zakharia, Yousef; Zhang, JunJournal of Immunotherapy: October 2018 - Volume 41 - Issue 8 - p 359–360 doi: 10.1097/CJI.0000000000000232 Review Article Abstract Author InformationAuthors Article MetricsMetrics Over the past couple of years, human microbiome has received increasing attention as a regulator and predictor of response to the therapies of various diseases. It is speculated that manipulating gut microbiome can modify response to cancer immunotherapies as well. Through this review, we have critically analyzed our current understanding of gut microbiome as a modulator of immunotherapies in lung cancer, explained conflicting data, evaluated current gaps and extrapolated our present knowledge to generate directions for future investigations. Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood & Marrow Transplantation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA U.S., Y.Z. and J.Z. wrote the manuscript. Reprints: Jun Zhang, Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood & Marrow Transplantation, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, 200 Hawkins Dr, Iowa City, IA 52242. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org). Received February 13, 2018 Accepted April 24, 2018 Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.