Improvement of Antitumor Effect of Intratumoral Injection of Immature Dendritic Cells Into Irradiated Tumor by Cyclophosphamide in Mouse Colon Cancer ModelSon, Cheol-Hun*; Shin, Dong Yeok*; Kim, Sung-Dae*; Park, Hee-Seong*; Jung, Min Ho†; Bae, Jae-Ho‡; Kang, Chi-Dug‡; Yang, Kwangmo*; Park, You-Soo*Journal of Immunotherapy: October 2012 - Volume 35 - Issue 8 - p 607–614 doi: 10.1097/CJI.0b013e31826f79a6 Basic Studies Abstract Author Information Recently, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are known to directly affect some immunosuppressive barriers within a tumor microenviroment. We used cyclophosphamide (CTX), which is known to enhance the immune response by suppressing CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) when used at a low dose, as a chemotherapeutic agent to provide a synergic effect in the irradiation and dendritic cells (DC) combination therapy. Some previous studies observed that a single-dose CTX treatment significantly reduced the number of Treg cells in 3–5 days, however, the reduced Treg cells increased rapidly after 5 days. To overcome the disadvantages of a single-dose CTX, we used 30 mg/kg dose of CTX, which was treated intraperitoneally to mice 3 days before every immature DC (iDC) injection (known as “metronomic schedule CTX”). Irradiation was applied at a dose of 10 Gy to the tumor on the right thigh by a linear accelerator. Then, iDC was intratumorally injected into the irradiated tumor site. Growth of a distant tumor on the right and left flank was suppressed by an injection of iDC into the irradiated tumor, and this effect was increased by the metronomic schedule CTX. Also, combinations treated with the metronomic schedule CTX and ionizing radiation (IR)/iDC, showed the longest survival time compared with other groups. This antitumor immune response of IR/iDC was improved by metronomic schedule CTX and this result was associated with decreasing the proportion of CD4+CD25+ Treg cells and increasing the number of tumor-specific interferon-γ-secreting T cells. Our results demonstrated that metronomic schedule CTX improves the antitumor effect of immunization with an injection of DC s into the irradiated tumor. *Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences †Department of Microbiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea ‡Department of Biochemistry, Pusan National University School of Medicine, Yangsan, Korea Reprints: You-Soo Park and Kwangmo Yang, Department of Research Center, Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences, Jwadong-gil 40, Jangan-eup, Gijang-gun, Busan, 619-953, Korea. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org;email@example.com Received June 26, 2012 Accepted July 29, 2012 © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.