Review ArticleInteraction Between Invariant NKT Cells and Myeloid-derived Suppressor Cells in Cancer Patients: Evidence and Therapeutic OpportunitiesMussai, Francis; De Santo, Carmela; Cerundolo, VincenzoAuthor Information MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK F.M. and C.De.S. share first authorship of this review. Reprints: Vincenzo Cerundolo, MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, John Radcliffe Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 9DS, UK (e-mail: email@example.com). Received April 6, 2012 Accepted April 6, 2012 Journal of Immunotherapy: July-August 2012 - Volume 35 - Issue 6 - p 449–459 doi: 10.1097/CJI.0b013e31825be926 Buy Metrics Abstract Despite advances in therapeutic strategies, the ability of cancer cells to evade destruction remains a significant obstacle to the development of effective anticancer treatment. In recent years a subset of immune cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), has been shown to play a key role in evasion of the patient’s immune system by tumor cells. A number of different tumor types are associated with increased numbers of circulating MDSCs in cancer patients, suppressing the immune response and permitting continued tumor cell proliferation. Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells have recently been defined as a unique subset of immune cells that are able to act as a link between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. iNKT cells have the ability to carry out immune surveillance of tumor cells and control proliferation of malignant cells. Recently, we presented evidence that iNKT cells are able to interact with and decrease the numbers of circulating MDSCs in melanoma patients. This review discusses the evidence for MDSCs in tumor progression and the implication that iNKT cells could be developed as a potent therapeutic strategy. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.