An incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA) commonly used in experimental cancer vaccines has recently been reformulated. Oleic acid used in the surfactant was purified from a vegetable source (olives, IFA-VG) rather than an animal source (beef tallow, IFA-AN). To provide an insight into the adjuvant properties of the new formulation, we reviewed T-cell responses, by enzyme-linked immunospot assay, to multipeptide vaccines in 2 sequential clinical trials that spanned this transition of adjuvants. Analyses included 194 patients who received either IFA-AN or IFA-VG for all vaccines, and a subset of 93 patients best matched by study arm for vaccine antigens (12 melanoma peptides restricted by major histocompatibility complex class I, 12MP; plus a tetanus helper peptide, tet) administered with IFA but without granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor. Inflammation was observed at vaccine sites clinically for almost all patients, even including ulceration in a subset with each IFA formulation. CD8+ T-cell response rates to the 12 melanoma peptides were 53% [95% confidence interval (CI), 44%, 61%)] for IFA-AN and 46% [95% CI, 32%, 59%)] for IFA-VG. In the 93 patient subset, these rates were 73% [95% CI, 61%, 83%)] and 70% [95% CI, 47%, 87%)], respectively. CD4+ T-cell responses to tetanus helper peptide were identified in 94% [95% CI, 86%, 98%)] and 96% [95% CI, 78%, 100%)], respectively. Responses to individual human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A1, A2, and DR associated peptides were largely preserved, but reactivity trended lower for some HLA-A3 associated peptides. Despite the necessarily retrospective nature of the analysis and limitations of multiple comparisons, our summary data support the use of IFA-VG as an adjuvant with multipeptide vaccines in melanoma patients.