ReviewNatural Killer Cell Alloreactivity for Leukemia TherapyRuggeri, Loredana; Mancusi, Antonella; Perruccio, Katia; Burchielli, Emanuela; Martelli, Massimo F; Velardi, Andrea Author Information From the Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Received for publication February 13, 2005; accepted February 18, 2005. This review is based on studies supported by grants from the Italian Association for Cancer Research, the Italian Ministry of Further Education, and the Italian Ministry of Health, by a Translational Research Grant from the Leukemia and Lymphoma Society, by the European Community “Allostem” Project (Contract number: 503319), and by the National Institutes for Health of the USA (Project Number 1 PO1 CA 100265-01A1). A.M. is a student of the International PhD Program in Molecular Medicine, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy. Reprints: Andrea Velardi, MD, Division of Hematology and Clinical Immunology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Perugia, Policlinico Monteluce, Via Brunamonti 51, 06122 Perugia, Italy (e-mail: [email protected]). Journal of Immunotherapy 28(3):p 175-182, May 2005. | DOI: 10.1097/01.cji.0000161395.88959.1f Buy Metrics Abstract Donor-versus-recipient natural killer (NK) cell alloreactivity derives from a mismatch between donor NK clones, carrying specific inhibitory receptors for self MHC class I molecules, and MHC class I ligands on recipient cells. When faced with mismatched allogeneic targets, these donor NK clones sense the missing expression of self HLA class I alleles and mediate alloreactions. Transplantation from NK alloreactive haploidentical donors controls acute myeloid leukemia relapse and improves engraftment without causing graft-versus-host disease. © 2005 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.