Schwannoma is a gradually growing encapsulated benign tumor arising from the Schwan cells of the peripheral nerve sheath. This study aims to report a rare case of tongue cellular schwannoma.
A 15-year-old boy presented with a swelling of the posterior part of the tongue that had started 2 years prior. On examination, a large mass was seen in the posterior part of the tongue. It was smooth, mobile, and nontender on palpation. A contrast computed tomography scan of the neck revealed an irregular, ill-defined, thick-walled cystic lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a well-circumscribed, enhancing mass measuring about 5×4.56×4.59 cm and causing compression upon the oropharyngeal airway. Histopathologic examination revealed a cellular schwannoma.
Histologically, all schwannoma tumors are encapsulated. Under the capsule, there are 2 specific patterns associated together, but they can be easily differentiated from each other. The first one is made up of firmly aggregated Schwan cells arranged in rows with palisade and enlarged nuclei which are known as Antoni type-A. The second one is the Antoni type-B that consists of weakly packed Schwann cells.
Tongue schwannoma is regarded as a solitary encapsulated benign tumor that may cause complications like difficulty in phonation. The primary treatment modality usually is transoral excision.