Indian Journal of Nephrology

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 Information For Authors

​Table of Contents

The Editorial Process. 1

  Processes for appeals. 1

  Anti-plagiarism policy. 2

  Clinical trial registry. 2

Authorship Criteria. 2

Digital copyright agreement link. 2

   Contribution Details. 2

   Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests. 3

Policy on pre-print. 3

Submission of Manuscripts. 3

   [1] Title Page/First Page File/covering letter. 3

   [2] Blinded Article file: 3

   [3] Images: 4

Preparation of Manuscripts. 4

   I. Covering letter: 4

   II. Title Page. 4

   III. Main File. 4

      Abstract 5

      Study design: 5

      Discussion and conclusions. 6

      Copies of any permission(s) 6

   Types of Manuscripts. 6

      Original Articles: 6

      Research Letter 6

      Clinical Case Reports. 7

      Meeting Report 7

      Guidelines. 7

      Letter to the Editor: 7

      Opinion: 7

      Renal Rounds. 8

      Global Kidney Health. 8

      In-depth review.. 8

      Allied Health Professionals' Corner 8

      Editorial/Commentary: Only by invitation. 9

   References. 9

   Tables. 9

   Figures. 9

Best Paper Awards. 10

Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy. 10

Sending a revised manuscript. 10

Reprints and proofs. 10

Copyrights. 11

Checklist. 11

​The Editorial Process​​

Indian Journal of Nephrology (IJN) is the official publication of the Indian Society of Nephrology (ISN). The vision of the Indian Journal of Nephrology is to be a leading peer-reviewed journal in the field of nephrology in India and internationally. The mission of the IJN is to publish high-quality original research, in-depth reviews, interesting cases, meeting reports, guidelines and other articles that advance the understanding and treatment of kidney-related diseases, with special relevance to South Asian population. The IJN would be a vehicle for the best research from India and around the world, provide a forum for the exchange of ideas and information among nephrologists and other healthcare professionals. The Journal would have a user-friendly and responsive approach. The IJN will also strive to promote the education and training of all kidney health professionals and other relevant stakeholders and raise awareness of kidney-related issues of public health importance.

The IJN publishes manuscripts that present high quality clinical research relevant to the broad area of nephrology, dialysis, organ transplantation and critical care. The journal does not charge for submission and processing of manuscripts. The IJN's content includes Original Articles, Research Letter, Meeting Report, Guidelines, Opinion, Renal Rounds, Global Kidney Health Issues, In-depth review, Editorial/Commentary, Allied Health Professionals' Corner and Letter to the Editor.

Editorial process: This journal operates a single anonymized review process. All contributions will be initially assessed by the editor for suitability for the journal. If the manuscript does not meet the stated criteria (instructions), it may be sent back to the author for modification or might be rejected outright. On submission, the editor (s) review all submitted manuscripts initially for suitability for formal review. Manuscripts with insufficient originality, serious scientific or technical flaws, or lack of a significant message or which are outside the scope of the journal are rejected without sending out for peer-review. Papers deemed suitable are then typically sent to a minimum of two independent expert reviewers to assess the scientific quality of the paper. Manuscripts returned to authors for modification after external review should be returned to the editorial office as early as possible but not later than 6 weeks. The Editor is responsible for the final decision regarding acceptance or rejection of articles. The Editor-in-Chief's decision is final. Editors are not involved in decisions about papers which they have written themselves or have been written by family members or colleagues or which relate to products or services in which the editor has an interest. Any such submission is subject to all the journal's usual procedures, with peer review handled independently of the relevant editor and their research groups. The editorial board reserves the right to assess suitability of the language, modify the text, improve the photographs to enhance clarity of presentation without affecting the content or the message being conveyed by the article.

Manuscripts need to be submitted through the submission portal

Manuscripts received from Editorial Board (EB) members: The journal followsdouble blind peer review process. The external peer reviewers will not be affiliated with the institution/organization as that of the author(s). The Society and EB members (including the Editor-in-Chief) are not included in any editorial or review process of their authored submissions and will be excluded from publication decisions. All Society and EB members are expected to mention their association with the journal and declare Conflict of Interest during manuscript submission.

Processes for appeals

The authors do have the right to appeal if they have a genuine cause to believe that the editorial board has wrongly rejected the paper. If the authors wish to appeal the decision, they should email the editorial office (([email protected]) explaining in detail the reason for the appeal. The appeals will be acknowledged by the editorial office and will be investigated by an Ombudsman. The processing of appeals will be done within 6 – 8 weeks. While under appeal, the said manuscript should not be submitted to other journals. The final decision rests with the Editor in Chief of the journal. Second appeals are not considered.

 Anti-plagiarism policy

The journal follows strict anti-plagiarism policy. Plagiarism includes duplicate publication of the author's own work, in whole or in part without proper citation or mispresenting other's ideas, words, and other creative expression as one's own. All submitted manuscripts undergoes plagiarism check with commercially available software ithenticate. Based on the extent of plagiarism, authors may be asked to address any minor duplication, or similarity with the previous published work. If plagiarism is detected after publication, the Journal will investigate. If plagiarism is established, the journal will notify the authors' institution and funding bodies and will retract the plagiarised article. Please contact the journal office ([email protected]) to report plagiarism.

 Clinical trial registry

  • Indian Journal of Nephrology is a signatory to the Statement on publishing clinical trials in Indian biomedical journals and requires that all clinical trials submitted to the journal be registered with an ICMJE approved registry that allows free online access to public. Clinical trials (interventional studies) only those are registered with Clinical Trials Registry- India (CTRI) will be considered for publication.
  • The authors need to mention CTRI registration number in covering letter and in the article file.  
  • All the randomized controlled trials should be described on the basis of revised CONSORT statement, which is available at

Authorship Criteria

Each author must have contributed sufficiently to the intellectual content of the submission. The corresponding author should list all authors and their contributions to the work. The corresponding author must confirm that he or she has had full access to the data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication. To qualify as a contributing author, one must meet all of the following criteria: Conceived and/or designed the work that led to the submission, acquired data, and/or played an important role in interpreting the results, drafted or revised the manuscript, and approved the final version.

Once submitted the order cannot be changed without written consent of all the contributors. The journal prescribes a maximum number of authors for manuscripts depending upon the type of manuscript, its scope and number of institutions involved (vide infra). The authors should provide a justification if the number of authors exceeds these limits.

Digital copyright agreement link

The submission system supports the digital copyright process. The submitting author should add all co-authors with their email addresses during the online submission process. An electronic copyright form will be sent to all co-authors after the manuscript is successfully submitted by the submitting author.

The co-authors are requested to send their agreement on the Digital Copyright link sent to their associated emails after submission is completed. The submitting author can track their co-authors' copyright status on 'Manuscript Information' page from their dashboard by clicking on the manuscript ID.

The publication of the manuscript will be considered only on receipt of the agreement on the copyright agreement received from all co-authors.

Contributors who meet fewer than all 4 of the above criteria for authorship should not be listed as authors, but they should be acknowledged with their permission.

 Contribution Details

Contributors should provide a description of contributions made by each of them towards the manuscript. Description should be divided in following categories, as applicable: concept, design, definition of intellectual content, literature search, clinical studies, experimental studies, data acquisition, data analysis, statistical analysis, manuscript preparation, manuscript editing and manuscript review.

 Conflicts of Interest/ Competing Interests

All authors of articles must disclose any, and all conflicts of interest they may have with publication of the manuscript or an institution or product that is mentioned in the manuscript and/or is important to the outcome of the study presented. If the articles are authored by the editorial board, the conflict of interest must be clearly stated.

 Policy on pre-print

The journal accepts manuscripts that have been published on pre-print servers. However, the author(s) must declare that they have uploaded their manuscript on a pre-print server and provide its details viz., manuscript title, pre-print server name, DOI and link in the covering letter. In the event that the author(s) fails to declare the pre-print submissions and provide the necessary information, the manuscript will be rejected. The author(s) should also bear in mind that manuscripts uploaded on pre-print servers will undergo a single blind peer review process as identity of the author(s) is disclosed in a public domain. The articles published previously on pre-print servers will under-go the same editorial quality checks, peer reviews and decision-making process as any other manuscript.

Submission of Manuscripts

All manuscripts must be submitted on-line through the website First time users will have to register at this site. Registration is free but mandatory. Registered authors can keep track of their articles after logging into the site using their username and password. Authors do not have to pay for submission, processing or publication of articles. If you experience any problems, please contact the editorial office by e-mail at [email protected]

The submitted manuscripts that are not as per the “Instructions to Authors" would be returned to the authors for technical correction before they undergo editorial/ peer-review. Generally, the manuscript should be submitted in the form of two separate files:

 [1] Title Page/First Page File/covering letter

This file should provide

  1. The title of the manuscript, running title, names of all authors/ contributors (with their highest academic degrees, designation, and affiliations) and name(s) of department(s) and/ or institution(s) to which the work should be credited. All information which can reveal your institute affiliation should be here. Use text/rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files.
  2. The word counts for the text (excluding the references, tables and abstract
  3. Registration number in case of a clinical trial and where it is registered (name of the registry and its URL).
  4. The name, address, e-mail, and telephone number of the corresponding author, who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final approval of the proofs, if that information is not included on the manuscript itself.
  5. If a manuscript is submitted on behalf of a consortium or group, include its name in the manuscript by-line. Do not add it to the author list in the submission system. You may include the full list of members in the Acknowledgments or in a supporting information file.

 [2] Blinded Article file:

The main text of the article, beginning from Abstract till References (including tables) should be in this file. The file must not contain any mention of the authors' names or initials or the institution at which the study was done or acknowledgements. Page headers/running title can include the title but not the authors' names. Manuscripts not in compliance with the Journal's blinding policy will be returned to the corresponding author. Use rtf/doc files. Do not zip the files. Limit the file size to 1 MB. Do not incorporate images in the file. If file size is large, graphs can be submitted as images separately without incorporating them in the article file to reduce the size of the file. The pages should be numbered consecutively, beginning with the first page of the blinded article file. Hence, the authors must ensure that the main manuscript file does not contain author details or any details that may reveal their identity.

 [3] Images:

Submit good quality colour images. Each image should be less than 2 MB in size. Size of the image can be reduced by decreasing the actual height and width of the images (keep up to 1600 x 1200 pixels or 5-6 inches). Images can be submitted as jpeg files. Do not zip the files. Legends for the figures/images should be included at the end of the article file. 

 Preparation of Manuscripts

Manuscripts must be prepared in accordance with "Uniform requirements for Manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals" developed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (Updated December 2021). The uniform requirements and specific requirement of Indian Journal of Nephrology are summarized below. Before submitting a manuscript, contributors are requested to check for the latest instructions available. Instructions are also available from the website of the journal ( and from the manuscript submission site

Indian Journal of Nephrology accepts manuscripts written in British English.

All manuscripts should be formatted double spaced on standard A-4 size paper format. Use font Times New Roman or Arial size 12 font. All pages of the manuscript should be numbered consecutively beginning with the title page. Cite references and figures by Arabic numerals in the text. All weights and measures must be given in metric units. Avoid use of full stops in the middle of abbreviations (ECG, not E.C.G.).

There should be following FIVE sets of files related to manuscript:

1.      Covering letter

2.      Title page

3.      Main body of manuscript

4.      Figure(s)

I. Covering letter:

Manuscript should be accompanied with a submission letter by the corresponding author that describes why the paper should be considered for publication, and provide details of any prior publication or publication 'under consideration' based on work done by the authors relevant to the manuscript

II. Title Page

Title page must be separate from the cover letter and main file. It should be arranged as follows and include: a) Title: should not exceed 100 characters including spaces between words. Do not use abbreviations in the title, B) list of authors: Type the full names (First, middle and last name), highest academic degrees and affiliations of all authors, C) Corresponding author: Designate a corresponding author and provide address, telephone number, and email, d) Running title: Provide a running title of not more than 40 characters, e) 3-5 key words for indexing purpose, f) Words count of abstract and the main text and g) Number of tables and figures

III. Main File

Main body of file should start with title of the manuscript and abstract on same page. Main file should be arranged as follows:


The abstract should be structured into four paras: introduction, methods, results, and conclusions and should be less than 250 words.

1.      Introduction

This section should set the stage for the study by providing necessary context and information to understand the research question, the rationale for the study, and the importance of the research with a very brief review of the relevant literature. It should outline the hypotheses or research questions that the study aims to answer. It should also describe the specific objectives of the study.

2.      Methods

This section should provide information necessary to evaluate the validity and reliability of the study and to understand how the research was conducted. For original articles, it should include study design, participants, data collection methods and tools, experimental protocols, statistical methods used to analyze the data, ethics and safety considerations and quality measures. Please provide sufficient detail to allow the reader to replicate the study.

3.      Results

Study design:

Selection and Description of Participants: Describe your selection of the observational or experimental participants (patients or laboratory animals, including controls) clearly, including eligibility and exclusion criteria and a description of the source population. Technical information: Identify the methods, apparatus (give the manufacturer's name and address in parentheses), and procedures in sufficient detail to allow other workers to reproduce the results. Give references to established methods, including statistical methods (see below); provide references and brief descriptions for methods that have been published but are not well known; describe new or substantially modified methods, give reasons for using them, and evaluate their limitations. Precisely identify all drugs and chemicals used, including generic name(s), dose(s), and route(s) of administration. Details about the methods of sample size calculation should be included.

Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT Statement (

For parameter estimates (e.g., relative risks, hazard ratios), use 95% confidence intervals whenever possible rather than P values.

Do not use “NS" for P values; provide the actual P values. P values should have only two significant decimal places, however, lower values (e.g., 0.002) are acceptable. Values smaller than 0.001 should be listed as <0.001. Use metric units (not SI).

The authors are required to use the downloadable word document templates provided at the end of this page to prepare the manuscripts. The reporting guidelines checklist is provided in these templates which must be duly followed. The authors can also choose the reporting guidelines for the specific study design from the web links provided in the table below and upload it along with the manuscript. Manuscripts with the incomplete checklist will be sent back to the authors.

Reporting Guidelines for Specific Study Designs

Guideline Type of Study Source
STROBE Observational studies including cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies
CONSORT Randomized controlled trials
SQUIRE Quality improvement projects
PRISMA Systematic reviews and meta-analyses
STARD Studies of diagnostic accuracy
CARE Case Reports
AGREE Clinical Practice Guidelines

The reporting guidelines for other types of studies can be found at

Discussion and conclusions

Should be succinct, focus on the significance of findings of the current report and contextualisation within the current knowledge. Please begin with a clear and concise summary of the main findings of the study. The authors should then provide an interpretation of these results, without repeating them. Please explain their significance in the context of the research question and hypothesis, highlight implications for practice, identify the strengths and weakness of the report and suggest direction for future research.

 Copies of any permission(s)

It is the responsibility of authors/ contributors to obtain permissions for reproducing any copyrighted material. A copy of the permission obtained must accompany the manuscript. Copies of any and all published articles or other manuscripts in preparation or submitted elsewhere that are related to the manuscript must also accompany the manuscript.

Types of Manuscripts

Original Articles:

These include population based surveys, program evaluations, impact assessment studies, randomized controlled trials, intervention studies, studies of screening and diagnostic test, outcome studies, cost effectiveness analyses, meta-analysis, systematic reviews, cohort studies and case-control studies

- Word limit: Maximum 3000 words

- References: up to 30

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max

Research Letter

Short original research reports highlighting novel findings.

- Word limit: 1,200 words.

- No abstract required.

- Methods - be provided as a separate supplemental file.

- References: Maximum 6. Additional references must be provided in a separate file and formatted as supplementary references with the prefix “S" (e.g., S1, S2, etc.).

- Figures/tables: Limit of 2 tables and/or figures. Additional tables/figures should be provided as Supplementary Material

- All Supplementary materials should be provided in pdf format

- In the main article in a Supplementary Material section immediately before the references, state the type of supplementary file with (as required) the title “Supplementary Methods.", “Supplementary References." and "Supplementary Table" or "Supplementary table"

Clinical Case Reports

- should describe cases of exceptional educational value

- Max 800 words

- Structured presentation: Introduction, Case Report, Discussion

- One to two high-quality figures or features of educational value (can go on the cover) - this is an essential feature

- Max 6 references

Meeting Report

These authoritative proceedings of specific topics in nephrology are usually solicited by the Editors. Proposals may be submitted; authors should only send an outline of the proposed paper for initial consideration. Both solicited and unsolicited articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

- Word limit: 4500 words

- References: up to 0

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max


Includes guidelines and consensus conference statements.

- Word limit: 4500 words

- References: up to 50

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max

Letter to the Editor:

These should be short and decisive observations. They should preferably be related to articles previously published in the Journal, views expressed in the journal or document interesting but brief original observations or confirmation of new findings. They should not be preliminary observations that need a later paper for validation.

- Word limit: 300 words maximum.

- No abstract required.

- References: 5 max

- Figures/tables: up to 1.


Features two divergent views on a particular nephrology issue. These articles are usually commissioned, but unsolicited manuscripts may also be submitted. Please approach the editorial office with a proposal. This article type is subject to internal peer review; sometimes additional commentaries are commissioned.

- Word limit: 1000 words

- References: up to 6

- No Abstract

- Figure OR Table - 1 max

Renal Rounds

Will discuss a clinical condition with the help of a case to make points about diagnosis, management, or discussion of a clinical dilemma that provide insights into the mechanisms of disease.

- Word limit: 2500 words

- References: up to 30

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max

Global Kidney Health

Any original article that discusses a kidney health-related problem of public health significance

- Word limit: 2500 words

- References: up to 30

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max

In-depth review

A detailed scholarly discussion on any kidney health-related topic of educational significance. In-depth reviews will be solicited by the Editorial Team from expert(s) in the field. Unsolicited reviews will be promptly returned. In case you should send an outline of the proposed review for initial consideration. Be specific about your topic and tell us why you think you are suited to write it or co-author it. Both solicited and unsolicited articles will undergo peer review prior to acceptance.

- Word limit: 4500 words

- References: No limit

- Structured abstract needed

- Figures/Tables - 5 max

The Journal prefers systematic reviews that have been registered in PROSPERO PROSPERO registry number should be provided in the review article under the “methodology" section.

Allied Health Professionals' Corner

To encourage submission from all allied kidney health professionals, for example, nutritionists, technicians, nurses, social workers, or transplant coordinators

- Word limit: 1500 words

- References: up to 6

- No abstract

- Figure OR Table - 1 max

Editorial/Commentary: Only by invitation.

- Word limit: 1500 words

- References: up to 10

- No abstract

- Figure OR Table - 1 max


The Journal uses Vancouver citing and referencing guide. References should be listed in order of appearance. Indicate references by (consecutive) superscript Arabic numerals in the order in which they appear in the text. Please refer to the 2020 American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style,11th ed

a)     Reference Links

Increased discoverability of research and high-quality peer review are ensured by online links to the sources cited. To allow us to create links to abstracting and indexing services, such as Scopus, CrossRef, and PubMed, please ensure that data provided in the references are correct. Please note that incorrect surnames, journal/book titles, publication year, and pagination may prevent link creation. When copying references, please be careful as they may already contain errors. Use of the DOI is encouraged.

b)     Web references

As a minimum, the full URL should be given and the date when the reference was last accessed. Any further information, if known (DOI, author names, dates, reference to a source publication, etc.), should also be given. Web references can be listed separately (e.g., after the reference list) under a different heading if desired or can be included in the reference list.

c)      Data References

Please cite underlying or relevant datasets in your text and include said references in your Reference List. Data references should include the following: author name, title, repository, version, persistent identifier, year. Add the word “dataset" in brackets (i.e., [dataset]) immediately before the reference so that it can be properly identified. This identifier will not appear in your published article.


  • All tables should be in editable form in the main body of manuscript after the references.
  • Each table should have a title and be numbered in Arabic numerals (e.g., Table 1) in the order of appearance in the text.
  • Use superscript letters to indicate footnotes typed at the bottom of the table.
  • All abbreviations used in the table should be explained in the footnote.


  • Figure legends should come on a separate page
  • Legends should state degree of magnification or scale bars should be used on the photograph.
  • Each figure should be sent online separately and not as part of main file. It also should not be pasted in the text of file.
  • Figures must be of professional quality.

    Figures should be high resolution (300x300 dpi) in tif or bmp format. (Do not send jpg or gif files). Low resolution figure will not be accepted.

•        Please do not supply files that are optimized for screen use (e.g., GIF, BMP, PICT, WPG); PDF; files that are less than 300 dpi (low resolution); or graphics that are disproportionately large for the content.

Acknowledgements: For non-author contributions, one or more statements should specify 1) contributions that need acknowledging but do not justify authorship, such as general support by a departmental chair; 2) acknowledgments of technical help; and 3) acknowledgments of financial and material support, which should specify the nature of the support.

Financial disclosure: Manuscripts should include details about the funding agency/ sponsors, grant number and the role of funders. If the funders have no role to play or the study did not receive funding, a statement declaring the same should be mentioned.

Conflict of interest: All manuscripts for articles, original research reports, editorials, comments, reviews, book reviews, and letters submitted to the journal must include a conflict-of-interest disclosure statement or a declaration by the authors that they do not have any conflicts of interest to declare. If the articles are authored by the editorial board, the conflict of interest must be clearly stated.

 Best Paper Awards

The IJN will give out upto 3 awards for high quality original publications authored by a trainee or a junior nephrologist (upto 3 years after qualifying). The trainee should be the first author and should have done the work themselves. Awards will be given out at the Annual Congress of the Indian Society of Nephrology.

 Protection of Patients' Rights to Privacy 

Identifying information should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, sonograms, CT scans, etc., and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian, wherever applicable) gives informed consent for publication. Authors should remove patients' names from figures even if they have obtained informed consent from the patients in order to protect patient privacy. The journal abides by ICMJE guidelines:

  1. Authors, not the journals nor the publisher, need to obtain the patient consent form before the publication and have the form properly archived. The consent forms are not to be uploaded with the cover letter or sent through email to editorial or publisher offices.
  2. If the manuscript contains patient images that preclude anonymity, or a description that has obvious indication to the identity of the patient, a statement about obtaining informed patient consent should be indicated in the manuscript.
  3. In order to protect the patient's identity, the recognizable facial features not related to the study should be digitally blurred
  4. Written informed consent is the preferred method for obtaining consent. If verbal consent is obtained, the authors must ensure that the verbal consent is recorded in the medical case record of the patient and duly signed by witness.

 Sending a revised manuscript 

The revised version of the manuscript should be submitted online in a manner similar to that used for submission of the manuscript for the first time. However, there is no need to submit the “First Page" or “Covering Letter" file while submitting a revised version. When submitting a revised manuscript, contributors are requested to include, the 'referees' remarks along with point-to-point clarification at the beginning in the revised file itself. In addition, they are expected to mark the changes as underlined or coloured text in the article.

 Reprints and proofs 

Journal provides no free printed reprints. Authors can purchase reprints, payment for which should be done at the time of submitting the proofs.

 Publication schedule

The journal publishes articles on its website with a bi-monthly frequency.

 Manuscript submission, processing and publication charges  

Journal does not charge the authors or authors' institutions for the submission, processing and/or publications of manuscripts.


The entire contents of the Indian Journal of Nephrology are protected under Indian and international copyrights. The Journal, however, grants to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, perform and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works in any digital medium for any reasonable non-commercial purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship and ownership of the rights. The journal also grants the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal non-commercial use under Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 4.0 International Public License.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to complete a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' An email will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript together with a 'Journal Publishing Agreement' form or a link to the online version of this agreement

The IJN strongly discourages duplication/reduplication of data already published in other journals (even when certain cosmetic changes/additions are made). If duplication is detected after publishing in the IJN, the journal will be forced to retract such articles.



  • Last name and given name provided along with Middle name initials (where applicable)
  • Author for correspondence, with e-mail address provided
  • Number of contributors restricted as per the instructions

Presentation and format

  • Double spacing
  • Margins 2.5 cm from all four sides
  • Page numbers included at bottom
  • Title page contains all the desired information
  • Running title provided (not more than 50 characters)
  • Abstract page contains the full title of the manuscript
  • Abstract provided (structured abstract of 250 words for original articles, unstructured abstracts of 250 words for review articles)
  • Keywords provided (three or more)
  • The references cited in the text should be after punctuation marks, in superscript with square bracket.

 Language and grammar

  • British English
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation at its first use in the title, abstract, keywords and text separately unless it is a standard unit of measure. Numerals from 1 to 10 spelt out
  • Numerals at the beginning of the sentence spelt out
  • Check the manuscript for spelling, grammar and punctuation errors
  • If a brand name is cited, supply the manufacturer's name and address (city and state/country).
  • Species names should be in italics

 Tables and figures

  • No repetition of data in tables and graphs and in text
  • Actual numbers from which graphs drawn, provided
  • Figures necessary and of good quality (colour)
  • Table and figure numbers in Arabic letters (not Roman)
  • Labels pasted on back of the photographs (no names written)
  • Figure legends provided (not more than 40 words)
  • Patients' privacy maintained (if not permission taken)
  • Credit notes for borrowed figures/tables provided
  • Write the full term for each abbreviation used in the table as a footnote