What next and what to expect? : Indian Journal of Ophthalmology

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What next and what to expect?

Jacob, Ninan; Deb, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Anureet; Sarkar, Sandip

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Indian Journal of Ophthalmology: September 2022 - Volume 70 - Issue 9 - p 3190
doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_410_22
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What next and what to expect?

A 17-year-old female presented with painless progressive loss of vision in both eyes (OU) with multiple episodes of syncope and postural giddiness for 1 month. On ocular examination, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 1/60 in the right eye (OD) and finger counting close to the face in the left eye (OS); intraocular pressure was within normal limits in both the eyes. Slit-lamp examination revealed corkscrew conjunctival vessels [Fig. 1a), anterior chamber (AC) cells 1(+), and iris neovascularization. Pupils were mid-dilated and sluggishly reacting to light. Fundus examination revealed hyperemia and neovascularization of the disc, dilated retinal veins with a beaded appearance, patches of retinal whitening over the macula and peripapillary area, and arterio-venous (AV) anastomosis [Fig. 1b and 1c].

What is the Next Step?

  1. Systemic examination
  2. Computed tomography (CT)-angiography
  3. Fundus fluorescein angiography and optical coherence tomography
  4. All of the above


On systemic examination, the radial artery pulse could not be felt, and the carotid pulsations were felt very feebly on both sides. The pulse rate measured in the right popliteal artery was 80/min. Blood pressure (BP) was not recordable in the upper limbs. BP recorded in the right lower leg was 150/90 mm Hg.

CT angiography revealed severe luminal narrowing involving the left common carotid artery and left subclavian artery at the ostial level, and juxta-ostial narrowing of the right brachiocephalic trunk with multiple enhancing collateral channels noted in the neck [Fig. 1d-f].

Figure 1:
(a) Slit-lamp photography showing corkscrew conjunctival vessels, (b) and (c) fundus images showing neovascularization of the disc, dilated retinal veins with beaded appearance, patches of retinal whitening over the macula and peripapillary area, and arterio-venous anastomosis, computed tomography (CT) angiography image showing (d) narrowing of the right brachiocephalic trunk (yellow arrow), (e) narrowing of the left common carotid artery (yellow arrow), (f) stenosed left subclavian artery, minimal contrast filled vessel seen (yellow arrow)

Proliferative retinopathy in both eyes was treated with pan-retinal photocoagulation (PRP) and one intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (Avastin) in OS. She received oral prednisolone for the systemic condition. Subsequently, she underwent phacoemulsification with foldable intraocular lens implantation in OU. She had a BCVA of 20/120 in OD and 20/400 in OS at the last follow-up visit.

Diagnosis: Takayasu arteritis (TA) with Takayasu retinopathy

Correct Answer: B


TA is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the large and medium-sized vessels, predominantly in the aorta and its main branches leading to the arterial wall thickening, fibrosis, stenosis, and thrombus formation resulting in cerebral and ocular ischemia.[1] Ophthalmic features in TA result from either due to the obliteration of arteries causing ischemic ocular changes (hypotensive retinopathy) or due to renal artery stenosis causing uncontrolled hypertension (hypertensive retinopathy).[2] Manifestations due to retinal hypoxia are microaneurysms, AV anastomosis, retinal vein occlusion, proliferative retinopathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, ocular ischemic syndrome, ischemic optic neuropathy, optic atrophy, retinal detachment, etc.[3]

Statement of ethics

Written informed consent for publication (including the images) has been obtained from the parent of the patient. All procedures carried out were in accordance with the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki. Institute Ethics Committee approval is not required for a case report according to Indian council of medical research guidelines.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.


1. Chun YS, Park SJ, Park IK, Chung H, Lee J The clinical and ocular manifestations of Takayasu arteritis Retina 2001 21 132 40
2. Kaushik S, Gupta A, Gupta V, Jain S, Lal V Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu's arteritis Indian J Ophthalmol 2005 53 194 6
3. Peter J, David S, Danda D, Peter JV, Horo S, Joseph G Ocular manifestations of Takayasu arteritis:A cross-sectional study Retina 2011 31 1170 8
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