Secondary Logo

Journal Logo



Tools for standardization of skills transfer

Singh, Kamaljeet

Author Information
Indian Journal of Ophthalmology: August 2020 - Volume 68 - Issue 8 - p 1577-1578
doi: 10.4103/ijo.IJO_358_20
  • Open

India is producing a large number of ophthalmologists, but many institutions have limited facilities to impart proper surgical training during post-graduation.[1] In order to improve the surgical acumen of these ophthalmologists, several skills transfer courses are being offered in different centers of the country. There is a sudden spurt in such centers. Thus, there are a lot of variations in the quality of training. Following the skills transfer and hands-on courses, assessment methods are hardly or never used to assess the transferred skills and competence level achieved by the trainees. Recording the feedback from the trainees is essential, which lacks uniformity. Several tools, like written feedbacks, have been tried by a few centers. However, they are not well recognized. In order to make it more useful, International Council of Ophthalmology (ICO) has developed several methods. The Ophthalmic Clinical Evaluation Exercise (OCEX) is used for assessing the residents' competence. But this is for ability to diagnose and discuss various other probabilities around the diagnosis.[2]

Similarly, tools are available like “Objective Assessment of Skill in Intraocular Surgery” (OASIS) for assessment of competence in surgical skill of phacoemulsification[3] and “Global Rating of Skills in Intraocular Surgery” (GRASIS) for the assessment of knowledge of preoperative instruments.[4] A tool like “Objective Structure Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill”(OSACSS) was developed by Saleh et al.[5] They are objective evaluation to test surgical technique and postoperative results including complications. This has been modified by ICO called ICO-OSCAR to assess the acquisition of the skills for various degrees.[6] The ICO-OSCARs are designed to facilitate assessment and teaching of surgical skill. Surgical procedures are broken down to individual steps and each step is graded on a scale of novice, beginner, advanced, and competent. A description of the performance necessary to achieve each grade in each step is given. The assessor simply circles the observed performance description at each step of the procedure. The ICO-OSCAR should be completed at the end of the case and immediately discussed with the student to provide timely, structured, specific performance feedback. These tools were developed by panels of international experts and are valid assessments of surgical skill. A modified OSCAR has been developed by Farooqui et al. to assess the competence of the learner for wet labs. This tool has 22 questions to be used before and after the end of the wet lab sessions.[7]

The ICO-OSCAR has been evaluated in this issue of the IJO by looking at the training parameters in first and last five cases operated by the trainee in short-term phacoemulsification skill training sessions.[8] The authors have done this study in a group of trainees having previous surgical experience of SICS to advance to phacoemulsification by using ICO-OSCAR. They have found the tool to be valid and comprehensive in the assessment of the surgical skill achieved by the trainee in short-term period. Energetic and enthusiastic incorporation of the national curriculum for training, competency-based learning, robust formative and summative assessment, common certification of the trainees, and rigorous accreditation of the training programs are much needed to standardize ophthalmic training in India.[9]

There has been a problem of difference in the matching of trainer's comments and trainees' self-evaluation. This ICO-OSCAR tool may solve this problem. Hence, rather than having an independent method of assessment by different centers, it may be recommended to use an easily available tool ICO-OSCAR, which is well researched by the ICO in order to bring about a standardized method for uniformity in the skill training.

1. Dhaliwal S, Ayyala RS. Post graduate training program in ophthalmology in India: Idealistic vs.realistic J Clin Ophthalmol Res. 2015;3:39–43
2. Golnik KC, Goldenhar L. The ophthalmic clinical evaluation exercise (OCEX) Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1649–54
3. Cremers SL, Ciolino JB, Ferruino-Ponce ZK. Henderson>Objective assessment of skills in intraocular surgery (OASIS) Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1236–41
4. Cremers SL, Lora AN, Ferrufino-Ponce ZK. Global rating assessment of skills in intraocular surgery (GRASIS) Ophthalmology. 2005;112:1655–60
5. Saleh GM, Gauba V, Mitra A, Litwin AS, Chung AK, Benjamin L. Objective structured assessment of cataract surgical skill Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:363–6
6. Golnik KC, Beaver H, Gauba V, Lee AG, Mayorga E, Palis G, et al Cataract surgical skill assessment Ophthalmology. 2011;118:427e1–5
7. Farooqui JA, Jaramillo A, Sharma M, Gomaa A. Use of modified international council of ophthalmology- ophthalmology surgical com petency assessment rubric (ICO- OSCAR) for phacoemulsification- wet lab training in residency program Indian J Ophthalmol. 2017;65:898–99
8. Bharucha KM, Adwe VG, Hegade AM, Deshpande RD, Deshpande MD, Kalyani VK. Evaluation of skills transfer in short-term phacoemulsification surgery training program by International Council of Ophthalmology -Ophthalmology Surgical Competency Assessment Rubrics (ICO-OSCAR) and assessment of efficacy of ICO-OSCAR for objective evaluation of skills transfer Indian J Ophthalmol. 2020;68:1573–7
9. Honavar GS. Steps to standardize ophthalmology residency programs in India Indian J Ophthalmol. 2018;66:733–9
© 2020 Indian Journal of Ophthalmology | Published by Wolters Kluwer – Medknow