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Polymorphisms in the Genes Related to Angiogenesis Are Associated With Uterine Cervical Cancer

Ramos-Flores, Christian PhD*; Romero-Gutiérrez, Teresa MS*; Delgado-Enciso, Iván PhD*†; Maldonado, Gabriela Enríquez; Plascencia, Víctor Montaño; Vazquez-Vuelvas, Oscar F. PhD§∥; Quintero-Ramos, Antonio PhD; Mejía, Roberto Chaparro#; Espinoza-Gomez, Francisco PhD*; Baltazar-Rodriguez, Luz M. PhD*; Valdez-Velazquez, Laura L. PhD

International Journal of Gynecological Cancer: September 2013 - Volume 23 - Issue 7 - p 1198–1204
doi: 10.1097/IGC.0b013e31829f4c6f
Basic Science

Introduction The expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) participates in the angiogenesis of several cancer types. The goal of this study was to investigate polymorphisms in genes related to angiogenesis (PAI-1-675 4G/5G, VEGF C936T, and TGF-β1 G-800A) to evaluate the risk for developing uterine cervical cancer (UCC).

Methods In a case-control study, 100 healthy subjects and 100 patients with UCC from Mexico were included. We determined the genetic profile of the polymorphic markers, which were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction using a sequence-specific primer.

Results There was no statistical difference in the allele distribution from the intergroup comparisons of PAI-1 675 4G/5G and VEGF C936T data; however, a significant difference was observed within TGF-β1 G-800A. The linkage disequilibrium analysis revealed that PAI-1 -675 4G and TGF-β1 -800A pair-haplotype was in strong linkage disequilibrium with a significantly increased risk (odds ratio, 3.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.66–7.25) to UCC.

Conclusions The polymorphisms in the genes related to angiogenesis -675 4G/5G PAI-1 and G-800A TGF-β1, segregated solely or combined, might contribute to the increased susceptibility to UCC in a Mexican population.

*Faculty of Medicine, University of Colima, Colima; †Cancerology State Institute and ‡Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory, Secretary of Health Colima, Coquimatlán, Colima; and §Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Colima, Colima; ∥School of Chemistry, Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila, Saltillo, Coahuila; ¶Department of Physiology, University Center of Health Sciences, University of Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco; and #University Regional Hospital, Secretary of Health Colima, Colima, México.

Address correspondence and reprint requests to Laura Leticia Valdez Velázquez, PhD, Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Colima, Km 9 Carretera Colima-Coquimatlán, Coquimatlán, Colima, México 28400. E-mail:

This study was supported in part by PROMEP funding (UCOL-PTC-120) as well as funding by FRABA-UdC (452/07) and the National Council for Science and Technology, granted scholarship to C.R.-F.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Received March 27, 2013

Accepted June 6, 2013

© 2013 by the International Gynecologic Cancer Society and the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology.