What is known about the topic?
- The JBI Model is now more than a decade old
- Evidence-based healthcare is complex, dynamic and evolving quickly
- There are many frameworks aimed at representing this process
- What does this article add?
- An understanding of how the JBI Model has been perceived and utilized in the international literature
- An understanding of how the JBI Model has been perceived and utilized by stakeholders internationally
- A revised version of the JBI Model
The JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare was first published in 2005.1 The implications of the final presentation of the Model, as published in the original source article, were two-fold and related to both internal organizational dynamics as well as the broader conceptualization of evidence-based healthcare (EBHC). It was presented as a ‘developmental framework of evidence-based practice that builds and expands on work of leaders in the field of evidence-based healthcare; is contextualised; is inclusive of diverse forms of evidence; and incorporates understandings of knowledge transfer and utilisation’.1 According to the authors of the original article, the Model was developed to provide an overview of the complete cycle of EBHC, from the generation of knowledge through to its implementation in practice.
There are a considerable number of frameworks and models available today that have been designed to articulate the process of moving evidence into practice.2 These include the Knowledge to Action Framework,3 the PARIHS Framework,4 the Ottawa Model of Research Use,5 the Coordinated Implementation Model,6 the Stetler Model of Research Utilisation7 and the CIHR Model of Knowledge Translation8 and, of course, the JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare.1 These models, frameworks or theories can all be useful for guiding the movement of evidence, although it is unlikely that any one of these single theories or models will provide the complete picture for EBHC.2
However, in addition to the above, the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Model and the discursive statements utilized within it (in addition to the structures and colour frameworks) also went on to become the scaffolding for other organizational documents and discourse that followed in JBI.9 Indeed, the work programmes of the Institute, the Joanna Briggs Collaboration and JBI tools and resources all utilize the language of the Model and the colour themes associated with each wedge. It has permeated and influenced the presentation of every aspect of the organization.
In the years since the inception of the JBI Model, there have been significant shifts in both the internal (i.e. within JBI) and external discourse around EBHC and the terminology associated with it. Even in its infancy, there were internal ‘disconnects’ between the language used to describe the Model and the language used to describe the activity of JBI and its international collaboration. As such it was considered timely to re-examine the Model and its component parts to see whether they remain relevant and a true and accurate reflection of where the evidence-based movement is today. This examination was used to rearticulate and further refine components of the Model.
Aims and objectives
The aim of this project was to evaluate the ongoing relevance of the JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare and to ascertain whether updates were required.
Specifically, it sought to
- Understand how the Model was perceived and utilized in the international literature.
- Understand how the Model was perceived and utilized by stakeholders internationally.
Phase 1: citation analysis
Publication and citation counting techniques have been used in the assessment of scientific activity for many decades, both as tools for librarians and to map scientific activity. Similar to other authors,10 we chose citation analysis to investigate how the JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare Model was perceived and used in the literature. The citation analysis was conducted using the index citation of the original source article by Pearson et al.1 The databases searched were Web of Science and Google Scholar from year of publication (2005) to July 2015. Duplicates and articles in languages other than English were removed and all results were imported and combined in an Excel spreadsheet for review and analysis.
All identified citations were screened by title and abstract. Articles were only excluded if they were in languages other than English, if no citation could be identified or if the article was listed in the reference list but no in text citation could be identified. No additional exclusion criteria were applied as the authors’ interests were in gauging use cases broadly in the literature and did not want to limit on the basis of how or why the Model was cited.
Data extracted included title, authors, publication year, where in the article the Model was referenced (i.e. background, methods, discussion), how many times the Model was referenced and other pertinent field notes and excerpts from the text relating to the Model. This was inputted to an Excel spreadsheet for analysis.
No quality assessment was applied to the articles as this exercise was aimed at identifying where and how the Model was cited, rather than the quality of the publication itself.
The included articles were coded by publication type, attribution of use and emergent themes.
Phase 2: model revision
Part 1 (working group review)
Following the citation analysis, the results were reviewed by a working group of senior researchers/academics in the JBI from across programme areas (synthesis, transfer, implementation, collaboration/communication) with significant experience in the field of EBHC.
The current process included multiple group unstructured face-to-face meetings during 2015. The meetings were not facilitated, but rather findings arose de novo through general discussion.
One member of the working group acted as scribe and following each session worked with a graphic designer to make changes to the Model that were then reviewed and further clarified at subsequent meetings.
Part 2 (focus group review)
Focus group discussions with the staff of Joanna Briggs Collaboration took place during the 2015 annual general meeting. This included approximately 70 participants experienced in EBHC and familiar with JBI and the JBI Model from around the globe (across Australia, Asia, America, Africa and Europe), representing approximately 20 language groups.
Participants were divided into groups of 10 with a JBI staff member allocated as facilitator and scribe. They were provided with a graphic of the revised version of the Model (generated by the working group) along with a discussion article detailing the changes that had been made and the rationale for change for consideration and were asked to discuss, in their groups, each of the component parts and to provide feedback related to the language and appearance of the Model and the specific changes that had been made. Their responses were recorded by scribes allocated per table and then transcribed for review.
Transcribed content was transferred to an Excel spreadsheet for analysis. No a-priori codes were determined for this phase of the analysis, but rather an inductive approach was employed whereby emergent themes were identified.
Phase 1: citation analysis
The search identified a total of 290 citations of the original source article (239 in Google Scholar and 51 in Web of Science). SCOPUS was not searched as the International Journal of Evidence Based Healthcare (IJEBHC) was not indexed in SCOPUS until after the date of publication of the original article, and thus, no citations of the source article are captured. Of the 290 citations in Google Scholar and Web of Science, 56 were identified as duplicates and 79 were identified as non-English articles and removed, an additional 30 were excluded on the basis of not having any reference to the source article (either in the reference list or in the text) and a final two were excluded at full text review as the citation had no bearing on the original source article (one related to preoperative hair removal techniques and the other related to educational contexts). This left a final number of 123 references.11–133
Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flow chart
Data analysis was both descriptive and thematic. Citations were coded using predetermined codes and then analysed for emergent themes.
Authorship: A total of 34 of the articles identified were authored by staff of the JBI. Of these, seven had Prof Alan Pearson as first author, who was also first author of the original source article. In addition, nine authors could be identified as JBI students and 19 as staff of Joanna Briggs Collaborating entities.
JBI publications: The identified articles were published in a range of journals and databases. However, it is important to note that, of these, 11 were published in the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports11–21 and 16 in the IJEBHC.22–37 These are both publications linked with the JBI.
Attribution of use: Table 1.
Publication type: Table 2.
Two emergent themes were identified as follows:
- Conceptualizing EBHC
- Conceptualizing evidence
The results of these analyses are detailed below.
- Conceptualizing EBHCWhere explicit reference to the JBI Model was identified, the content was largely descriptive in nature, explaining each segment. The Model was often used to conceptualize EBHC and the steps required to achieve it; however, this was not always achieved in a consistent manner. Within the context of outlining, the challenges surrounding evidence-based medicine in developing countries utilized the JBI Model to outline the steps required for evidence synthesis.134 Others refer to the JBI Model and the various stages of evidence implementation, ‘including evidence production, synthesis, knowledge transfer, and evidence utilisation’.55 Given these examples, it is evident that language is an issue in which various elements of the evidence-based process are referred to with considerable variation even when referring to the same Model.
Equally, the idea that evidence does not stand alone in the decision-making process, but should be considered alongside client preferences, clinical judgement and context was a focus in many of the articles in which the Model was cited. Macdonald135 outlines the benefits of the JBI approach, as conceptualized in the Model, stating the value of recognising both ‘qualitative and quantitative evidence, a holistic understanding of the provision of healthcare, a systematic approach to evidence synthesis and a global presence’. It is the congruence between primary and secondary research and clinical practice that appears to resonate with health practitioners and researchers alike. As Macdonald135 states, the JBI approach ‘mirrors the nursing approach to client care, which is holistic and aims to balance both the scientific and humanistic characteristics of health’ and is important ‘not only for nurses and nursing but for all healthcare providers’.
- Conceptualizing evidenceThere was considerable reference to JBI Feasibility, Appropriateness, Meaningfulness and Effectiveness (JBI FAME), particularly in which authors sought to extend the understanding of what constitutes evidence. It is clear from the literature that this conceptualization of evidence (and the inclusion of research and other articles as they relate to the feasibility, appropriateness, meaningfulness and effectiveness of interventions) has resonated considerably with authors internationally. Not only was JBI FAME utilized to highlight the importance of considering a broader conceptualization of evidence but also to inform and guide the types of questions being asked about healthcare provision and thus the types of reviews being conducted. There is evidence that since the publication of the original model, these terms (and their synonyms) have permeated common understandings and interpretations of EBHC, which was not necessarily the case when the Model was published.136,137
Phase 2: model revision
During Part 1 of the Model revision process, the working group considered the original Model (Fig. 1) in light of the results of the citation analysis and their collective experiences and understandings of where the EBHC movement had evolved to over the course of the last decade. Each segment of the Model was considered through an iterative process of discussion and debate until a unified position was agreed upon. The result was a revised Model (Figure in Appendix 1).
Focus group participants were presented with the revised version of the Model (Figure in Appendix 1) for their consideration and feedback. Based on this feedback, a further version of the Model was developed (Fig. 2). Results from the working group review and focus group discussion are presented below in the form of responses to each segment of the Model.
Segment 1: centre ‘pebble of knowledge’
Revision 1 (working group changes): The central component of the JBI Model (the ‘pebble’ – aka the ‘pebble of knowledge’ as per the JBI logo) remained in Revision 1 of the Model. However, ‘evidence based’ was replaced with ‘evidence informed’ as the working group believed this to be a more accurate reflection of the evidence-based movement and how evidence should be considered in the context of clinical decision-making. In addition, FAME, which originally appeared as a component part of evidence generation, was moved to the centre pebble. FAME is the Institute's representation of the range of questions articulated by health professionals and the need for a broad view of what constitutes evidence to respond to these highly variable information needs.
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): Most feedback acknowledged that ‘informed’ might be a more semantically accurate term to reflect the Institute's activity; however, participants advocated strongly in favour of maintaining the term ‘based’, given the challenges around linguistic translation of the term ‘informed’ and the potential for confusion in the clinical community if the word was changed. There was also a desire to remain consistent with other international organizations such as the WHO, who continue to utilize the word ‘based’.
Most participants were positive about the shift of FAME to the central pebble and agreed that it was appropriate and relevant for JBI to do this and that it still reflected the important elements related to patient involvement, although it was important to ensure this was reflected both here and elsewhere in the Model.
Although no changes had been made, there was overwhelming feedback that evidence-based healthcare was far more appropriate than evidence-based practice, healthcare being a more inclusive term representative of the broader organizational imperative for best practice, including quality management and policy along with practice, as well as being more appropriately nuanced to the knowledge needs of educational settings, peak bodies, and professional societies and associations.
Segment 2: global healthcare
Revision 1 (working group changes): In this revision, Global Health was changed to Healthcare, given some of the complexity around use of the term ‘global’ and the variation in understanding of the term.
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): Feedback was mixed regarding the right terminology to use to name this segment of the Model and no consensus was reached. Global Healthcare was formalized as the starting point for the Model on the basis that the Institute's mission is grounded in collaboration, with centres of excellence around the world contributing to inform knowledge needs for local problems with global relevance, and presents a timely reminder that evidence itself should also be sought globally.
Segment 3: evidence generation
Revision 1 (working group changes): Given the move of FAME to the central pebble, the additional ‘middle’ layer of this segment was removed. The working group agreed that the terms research, experience and discourse remained valid for this segment.
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): There was consensus that evidence generation was the correct term to use to describe this segment of the Model. However, there was considerable discussion regarding its component parts. Specifically, there was consensus that ‘expertise’ was a more appropriate term than ‘experience’ and that each of the components required further clarification.
Segment 4: evidence synthesis
Revision 1 (working group changes): The first revision of the Model saw the component parts of this segment change from Theory, Methodology and Systematic Review to Clinical Guidelines, Evidence Summaries and Systematic Reviews to better reflect the different ways in which evidence might be synthesized.
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): There was consensus that evidence synthesis was the correct term to use to describe this segment of the Model. There was also consensus that ‘clinical guidelines’ should be changed to just ‘guidelines’ in this segment to reflect the broad nature of health policy and practice. Although there was some reflection about whether guidelines fit better in synthesis or transfer, there were several comments in support of its positioning in synthesis at a ‘high level’.
Segment 5: evidence transfer
Revision 1 (working group changes): In the first iteration of changes, the component parts of the Transfer segment of the Model were changed to include Education programs, Systems integration and Active dissemination (rather than just ‘information’).
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): There was consensus that evidence transfer was the correct term to use to describe this segment of the Model. There was a mixed response regarding the term ‘active dissemination’ with some suggesting the removal of ‘active’. Equally there were mixed responses to the titles in the other two component parts with suggestion to remove ‘programs’ from the education component and further explanation required for ‘systems integration’.
Segment 6: evidence implementation
Revision 1 (working group changes): The working group changed Utilisation to Implementation to better reflect international language used to describe the field. The component parts were also changed to Situational analysis, Facilitation of practice change and Evaluation of process and outcome.
Revision 2 (focus group feedback): The change from ‘utilisation’ to ‘implementation’ to describe this segment of the Model was unanimously supported. There was a suggestion that ‘situational analysis’ may be outdated language and that ‘context analysis’ or ‘gap analysis’ might be more appropriate. It was generally agreed that ‘facilitation of change’ was an important component, but a suggestion to provide more information about what this might entail (i.e. skills development). There was further suggestion to move ‘sustainable impact’ to this segment and additional work to flesh out the science behind implementation in the accompanying article.
A ‘mapping’ table is provided below to summarize the main changes between the original version (Fig. 1) and final revised version (Fig. 1, noting that it was only a working draft; Appendix 1) (Table 3).
Generally, researchers and academics develop and utilize models to examine, explain or demonstrate ideas and phenomena. They are visual aids to assist in communicating complex processes, such as EBHC and translation science. Equally, there are a multitude of models in existence. This article sought to establish the use and revise the JBI Model and did so through a process of citation analysis and participants’ feedback.
The results of the work done as part of this project suggests that the JBI Model has been utilized, predominantly, as a tool to frame and describe EBHC broadly and to inform the conduct of systematic reviews and a small number of implementation projects. Although the requirement for implementation of evidence-based practice models is clear, ‘few guidelines exist for service providers about how to implement these models within the practical constraints of their organisational context’.138 This was an important consideration during the redevelopment process of the Model.
A significant body of research exists concerned with various aspects of communication across cultural and linguistic boundaries, which was also an important consideration in the redevelopment of the Model.139 Ollenschlager et al.140 state that, ‘Effective collaboration in evidence-based healthcare requires that methodological principles are common’. The focus group process utilized here highlighted the importance of language in addition to methodological principles in achieving an international approach to EBHC, with most feedback related to terminology and the use of various words or phrases to describe component parts of the Model.
There are very few ‘language universals’ and rather diversity can be found ‘at almost every level of linguistic organisation’.141 The Joanna Briggs Collaboration (JBC) includes centres from across approximately 40 countries, let alone the rest of the world's 6000–8000 other languages! Thus, the importance of finding terminology that can be translated with as much ease as possible is significant (and challenging!).
The focus group process was important for determining both the internal and external linguistic validity of the JBI Model. Internal linguistic validity, in this instance, relates to how language is utilized to promote unity across the JBC and shared understanding of the JBI approach to EBHC. In this sense, the Model has become a shared ‘object to think with’ facilitating the JBI/JBC's ability to ‘think together apart’ as part of the collaborative process.142 Given that the JBC now spans across five regions of the world, the cocreation of a common language around our collective understanding of how JBI conceptualizes EBHC is critical. It relates not only to how we function as an organization and our ability to work as a culturally agile and adept international team (building trust and rapport with our collaborators), but also our ability to move forward and to make an academic contribution to the evolution of EBHC and translation science.
External linguistic validity relates here to the ability of language constructs to enable effective communication with the broader healthcare community, particularly in countries where English is not the first language. Although the corporate language of JBI is English, it is important that there is facility for effective linguistic translation that will not inhibit meaning. There is always a risk that, during the translation process, the meaning or essence of the message is distorted or altered in some way. Responses from participants in the focus groups in relation to use of the term ‘informed’ instead of ‘based’ was particularly useful in this respect as the term ‘informed’ was deemed in some instances far more difficult to translate in a concise and meaningful way. This, from a knowledge transfer perspective, was vitally important feedback. In addition, some participants in the focus groups felt the move from ‘based’ to ‘informed’ would result in confusion in the clinical community, a concern that has also been expressed elsewhere and given these considerations the term ‘based’ was preferred.143
We recognize the limitations of using citation analysis (i.e. self-citing, authorship by JBI staff and collaborators and the fact that JBI has its own journal). However, the process was simply utilized to be indicative and to provide some insight into how the Model is generally perceived and utilized, if at all, to inform policy development and/or practice. Moreover, there are other articles that have included discussion of the JBI Model as a key feature of that publication, and although these were picked up in the current analysis it is possible that a further citation analysis of these key resources may have included additional and potentially different information regarding the use of the Model.144,145 However, we decided to use the original publication as the best and most relevant target source for this citation analysis. A significant limitation of this article is the exclusion of articles published in languages other than English, particularly as the JBI has many centres across the globe where English is not an official language.
The citation analysis revealed that, despite being cited almost 200 times by academics, health professionals and policy makers, the Model itself was rarely used to inform or direct policy or practice. Equally, the focus group process confirmed that there was a need to ensure the language utilized in the Model was internationally appropriate and in line with current international trends in EBHC. As a result, a revised Model is proposed which clarifies the conceptual integration of evidence generation, synthesis, transfer and implementation, linking how these occur with the necessarily challenging dynamics that contribute to whether translation of evidence into policy and practice is successful.
Given that the JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare was published over a decade ago and has been heavily utilized as an organizational tool by the Institute, it was appropriate not only to conduct a citation analysis of its use internationally but also to consult with stakeholders regarding any proposed changes. The process was invaluable and has resulted in a revised Model that better reflects the process of EBHC as understood by JBI and the JBC. More information regarding the JBI Model can be found online (Appendix 2).
The authors would like to thank members of the Joanna Briggs Collaboration Committee of Directors for providing their thoughts and feedback in relation to the JBI Model of Evidence Based Healthcare. The authors would also like to acknowledge the contribution of Sarah Silver for her assistance with the citation analysis.
Ethics approval and consent to participate: not applicable.
Consent for publication: not applicable.
Availability of data and material: not applicable.
Funding: not applicable.
Z.J. drafted the first full version of the article, C.L., Z.M. and E.A. provided feedback and comment on the article and all authors provided approval of the final version to be published.
Conflicts of interest
The authors report no conflicts of interest.
Appendix 1: First revision of JBI Model
Revised JBI Model of Evidence Informed Healthcare (Version 1). This version of the JBI Model was prepared by a Working Group of JBI and presented to members of the Joanna Briggs Collaboration Committee of Directors for feedback during the 2015 face-to-face meeting.
Appendix 2: Supplementary materials
Other resources: http://joannabriggs.org/jbi-approach.html
1. Pearson A, Wiechula R, Court A, Lockwood C. The JBI model of evidence-based healthcare. Int J Evid Based Healthc
2. Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implementation Sci
3. Graham ID, Logan J, Harrison MB, et al. Lost in knowledge translation
: time for a map? J Contin Educ Health Prof
4. Kitson A, Harvey G, McCormack B. Enabling the implementation of evidence-based practice: a conceptual framework. Qual Health Care
5. Logan J, Graham ID. Toward a comprehensive interdisciplinary model of health care research use. Sci Commun
6. Lomas J. Retailing research: increasing the role of evidence in clinical services for childbirth. Milbank Q
7. Stetler CB. Updating the Stetler model of research utilization to facilitate evidence-based practice. Nurs Outlook
8. Canadian Institutes of Health Research. About knowledge translation
. 2005; Ottawa: Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), Available from: http://www.cihr-irsc.gc.ca/e/29418.html
. [Retrieved 9 September 2006].
9. Jordan Z, Pearson A. International collaboration in translational health science. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2013.
10. Field B, Booth A, Ilott I, Gerrish K. Using the knowledge to action framework in practice: a citation analysis and systematic review. Implementation Sci
11. Tartu I. Falls prevention practices amongst nurses and physiotherapists in an orthopaedic unit, within the acute care setting in Sydney: a best practice implementation project. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
12. Ramis M, Chang A, Nissen L. Strategies for teaching evidence-based practice to undergraduate health students: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
13. Stern C. Closing the knowledge gap one review at a time. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
14. Munn Z, Scarborough A, Pearce S, et al. The implementation of best practice in medication administration across a health network: a multisite evidence-based audit and feedback project. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
15. Hunter B, Murray SF, Bick D, et al. Demand-side financing measures to increase maternal health service utilisation and improve health outcomes: a systematic review of evidence from low- and middle-income countries. JBI Libr Syst Rev
16. Harrison M. Keynote address at the 9th Biennial JBI colloquium in Singapore: energizing global healthcare: evidence for action. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
17. Phillips NM, Street M, Kent B. Post-anaesthetic discharge scoring criteria: a comprehensive systematic review. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
18. Peters M, Riitano D, Lisy K, Aromataris EC. Provision of effective, meaningful and appropriate care for families who have experienced stillbirth: a comprehensive systematic review protocol. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
19. Uhrenfeldt L, Ludvigsen S, Fegran MS, et al. Significant others’ experience of hospitalized patients’ transfer to home: a systematic review protocol. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
20. [No authors listed]. The feasibility, appropriateness, meaningfulness and effectiveness of canine-assisted interventions (CAIs) on the health and social care of the elderly residing in long-term care: a comprehensive systematic review. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
21. McArthur A. The implementation of evidence in practice. JBI Database Syst Rev Implement Rep
2014; 12:1–2. (Editorial).
22. Sedig K, Parsons P, Naimi A, Willoughby K. Reconsidering healthcare evidence as dynamic and distributed: the role of information and cognition. Int J Evid Based Healthc
23. Frewin D. Elements of evidence-based healthcare. Int J Evid Based Healthc
24. Jordan Z, Munn Z, Aromataris E, Lockwood C. Now that we’re here, where are we? The JBI approach to evidence-based healthcare 20 years on. Int J Evid Based Healthc
25. Frewin DB. The International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare – Quo Vadis? Int J Evid Based Healthc
26. Gayle H. Improving and ensuring best practice continence management in residential aged care. Int J Evid Based Healthc
27. Pearson A, White H, Bath-Hextall F, et al. A mixed-methods approach to systematic reviews. Int J Evid Based Healthc
28. Abu-Qamar M, Wilson A. Evidence-based decision-making: the case for diabetes care. Int J Evid Based Healthc
29. Pearson A. Scientists, postmodernists or fascists? Int J Evid Based Healthc
30. Giles K, Stephenson M, McArthur A, Aromataris E. Prevention of in-hospital falls: development of criteria for the conduct of a multi-site audit. Int J Evid Based Healthc
31. Masso M, McCarthy G. Literature review to identify factors that support implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care. Int J Evid Based Healthc
32. Godfrey CM, Khalil H, McInerney P, et al. Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. Int J Evid Based Healthc
33. Copley J, Allen S. Using all the available evidence: perceptions of paediatric occupational therapists about how to increase evidence-based practice. Int J Evid Based Healthc
34. Munn Z, Tufanaru C, Aromataris A. Recognition of the health assistant as a delegated clinical role and their inclusion in models of care: a systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence. Int J Evid Based Healthc
35. Kitson A. Mechanics of knowledge translation
. Int J Evid Based Healthc
36. Wiechula R, Kitson A, Marcoionni D, et al. Improving the fundamentals of care for older people in the acute hospital setting: facilitating practice improvement using a Knowledge Translation
Toolkit. Int J Evid Based Healthc
37. Harvey G, Kitson A, Munn Z. Promoting continence in nursing homes in four European countries: the use of PACES as a mechanism for improving the uptake of evidence-based recommendations. Int J Evid Based Healthc
38. Porritt K. A discursive analysis of contemporary literature examining qualitative research findings in evidence-based health care [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2011.
39. Lubbe W, Van der Walt CS, Klopper HC. Integrative literature review defining evidence-based neurodevelopmental supportive care of the preterm infant. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs
40. Toft BS, Uhrenfeldt L. The lived experiences of being physically active when morbidly obese: a qualitative systematic review. Int J Qualitative Stud Health Well-being
41. Porritt K, Gomersall J, Lockwood C. JBI's systematic reviews: study selection and critical appraisal. Am J Nurs
42. Pearson A, Wiechula R, Court A, Lockwood C. A re-consideration of what constitutes ‘Evidence’ in the healthcare professions. Nurs Sci Q
43. Tolson D, Booth J, Lowndes A. Achieving evidence-based nursing practice: impact of the Caledonian Development Model. J Nurs Manag
44. Moura Jde A, Costa BC, de Faria RM, et al. Improving communication skill training in patient centered medical practice for enhancing rational use of laboratory tests: the core of bioinformation for leveraging stakeholder engagement in regulatory science. Bioinformation
45. Byrne SK, Collins SD. Lymphatic filariasis in children in Haiti. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs
46. McMillin SE. Translating social work research for social justice: focusing translational research on equity rather than the market. J Evid Based Soc Work
2014; 11:1–2. 148–156.
47. Pearson A, Jordan Z, Munn Z. Translational science and evidence-based healthcare: a clarification and reconceptualization of how knowledge is generated and used in healthcare. Nurs Res Pract
48. O’Halloran P, Porter S, Blackwood B. Evidence based practice and its critics: what is a nurse manager to do? J Nurs Manag
49. Chlan L, Tracy MF, Grossbach I. Achieving quality patient-ventilator management: advancing evidence-based nursing care. Crit Care Nurs
50. Tolson D, Bennett J, Currie K, et al. Facilitating collaborative development in practice. Int J Nurs Pract
51. Chan S. Taking evidence-based nursing practice to the next level. Int J Nurs Pract
2013; 19 (Suppl 3):1–2.
52. Côrtes CT, Santos RC, Caroci Ade S, et al. Implementation methodology of practices based on scientific evidence for assistance in natural delivery: a pilot study. Rev Esc Enferm USP
53. Adeloye DO. Key challenges of evidence-based medicine in developing countries. Res J Health Sci
54. Munn Z. Addressing the patient experience in medical imaging [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2013.
55. Baradaran-Seyed Z, Nedjat S, Yazdizadeh B, et al. Barriers of clinical practice guidelines development and implementation in developing countries: a case study in Iran. Int J Prev Med
56. Larsen P, Thordis T, Pedersen P. Effect of clinical nurses specialists intervention on rehabilitation outcomes in patients with heart failure. Clin Nurs Stud
57. Jordan Z. International collaboration in health sciences research: manna, myth and model [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2011.
58. Moses L. Is the Montreal cognitive assessment a suitable replacement for mini mental status examination in the detection of clinical cognitive deterioration [thesis]? Auckland: Auckland University of Technology; 2014.
59. Jamas MT, Hoga LAK, Tanaka ACA. Mothers’ birth care experiences in a Brazilian birth centre. Midwifery
60. Cheng H. Non-invasively obtained central blood pressure: barriers and strategies to its use in practice [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2012.
61. Du Preez A. Quality improvement intervention programme (QIIP) for intrapartum care [thesis]. Potchefstroom: North-West University; 2010.
62. Hunter L. Supporting teenage mothers to initiate breast feeding and developing a support intervention to increase breast feeding rates in a vulnerable group – the importance of place [thesis]. London: University of West London; 2014.
63. Reberte LM, Hoga LA, Gomes AL. Process of construction of an educational booklet for health promotion of pregnant women. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
64. Hoga LAK, Vulcano MA, Miranda CM, Manganiello A. Male behavior in front of women with premenstrual syndrome: narratives of women. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem
65. Cavenett SJ. The effectiveness of total surface bearing compared to specific surface bearing prosthetic socket design on health outcomes of adults with a trans-tibial amputation: a systematic review [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2014.
66. Stern C. Canines utilised for therapeutic purposes in the physical and social health of older people in long term care [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2011.
67. Chen Z. Chikungunya virus: evidence for global policy, practice and research in disease management, surveillance, and mosquito control [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2014.
68. Lawrence M, Pringle J, Kerr S, Booth J. Stroke survivors’ and family members’ perspectives of multimodal lifestyle interventions for secondary prevention of stroke and transient ischemic attack: a qualitative review and meta-aggregation. Disabil Rehabil
69. Macdonald D. The experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating to provide birthing care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence [thesis]. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Dalhousie University; 2015.
70. Hoga LAK, Rodolpho JRC, Sato PM, et al. Adult men's beliefs, values, attitudes and experiences regarding contraceptives: a systematic review of qualitative studies. J Clin Nurs
71. Lang DSP, Hagger C, Pearson A. Safety of rapid rituximab infusion in adult cancer patients: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Pract
72. Courtney M, McCutcheon H. Elsevier Australia, Using evidence to guide nursing practice. Chatswood, NSW: 2010.
73. Hopp L. Shaping practice. Foundations of clinical nurse specialist practice. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2014.
74. Noyes J, Popay J, Pearson A, et al. Chapter 20: qualitative research and Cochrane reviews. Cochrane handbook for systematic reviews of interventions: Cochrane book series. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell: UK; 2008.
75. Pearson A, Hannes K. Evidence about clients’ experiences and concerns. Evidence-based practice across the health professions. 2nd ed.Chatswood: Churchill Livingstone Australia; 2010.
76. Joyner K, Shefer T, Smit E. Discourses and practices in institutionalised nursing in South Africa: challenges for care. S Afr Rev Sociol
77. Porter S. Fundamental patterns of knowing in nursing: the challenge of evidence-based practice. Adv Nurs Sci
78. Card AJ, Ward JR, Clarkson PJ. Getting to zero: evidence-based healthcare risk management is key. J Healthc Risk Manag
79. Korhonen A, Hakulinen-Viitanen T, Jylhä V, Holopainen A. Meta-synthesis and evidence-based health care – a method for systematic review. Scand J Caring Sci
80. Thorne S, Sawatzky R. Particularizing the general: sustaining theoretical integrity in the context of an evidence-based practice agenda. ANS Adv Nurs Sci
81. Rizvi F. Systematic review-what do we have to do with it? J Islamabad Med Dent Coll
82. Hemingway P, Brereton N. (2009) What is a systematic review?, Hayward Medical Communications, Hayward Group Ltd.
83. Booth A. On hierarchies, malarkeys and anarchies of evidence. Health Inf Lib J
84. Doyle K, Hungerford C. Adapting evidence-based interventions to accommodate cultural differences: where does this leave effectiveness? Issues Ment Health Nurs
85. Hopp L. The role of systematic reviews in teaching evidence-based practice. Clin Nurse Spec
86. Pearson A. Evidence-based healthcare and qualitative research. J Res Nurs
87. Pearson A, Soares CB. The Brazilian Centre for Evidence-based Healthcare: an Affiliate Centre of the Joanna Briggs Institute. Rev Esc Enferm USP
88. Aromataris E, Pearson A. The systematic review: an overview. Am J Nurs
89. Munn Z, Porritt K, Lockwood C, et al. Establishing confidence in the output of qualitative research synthesis: the ConQual approach. BMC Med Res Methodol
90. Pearson A. The evidence base for nursing practice: the potential impact of spearheading leading-edge nursing research on improving global health. J Res Nurs
91. Ring NA. A critical analysis of evidence-based practice in healthcare: the case of asthma action plans [thesis]. Stirling: University of Sterling; 2013.
92. McCloud C, Harrington A, King L. A pre-emptive pain management protocol to support self-care following vitreo-retinal day surgery. J Clin Nurs
93. Lawrence M, Kinn S. Determining the needs, priorities, and desired rehabilitation outcomes of young adults who have had a stroke. Rehabil Res Pract
94. Yelland G. Developing a framework for understanding organizational culture in healthcare organizations from a complex adaptive systems perspective [thesis]. Calgary: University of Calgary; 2012.
95. Schmitt J, Wozel G, Garzarolli M, et al. Effectiveness of interdisciplinary vs. dermatological care of moderate-to-severe psoriasis: a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Acta Derm Venereol
96. Jayasekara RS. Evidence based national framework for undergraduate nursing education in Sri Lanka. J Nurs Health Care
97. Larsen P. Home-based rehabilitation of patients with heart failure: evidence, self-care and health status [thesis]. Aalborg: Aalborg Universitet VBN; 2015.
98. Smyth W. In at the deep end: the culture of nursing research in a paediatric ward [thesis]. Townsville: James Cook University; 2008.
99. Terry VR. Online versus face-to-face: development, refinement, implementation, and evaluation of an online intravenous pump emulator, including outcomes for clinical practice for nursing students [thesis]. Toowoomba: University of Southern Queensland; 2015.
100. France EF, Ring N, Noyes J, et al. Protocol-developing meta-ethnography reporting guidelines (eMERGe). BMC Med Res Methodol
101. Garside R. A comparison of methods for the systematic review of qualitative research: two examples using meta-ethnography and meta-study [thesis]. Exeter and Plymouth: Peninsula Medical School, Universities of Exeter and Plymouth; 2008.
102. Mitchell S. A systematic review of evidence on the effectiveness of video laryngoscopes in acute care facilities [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2012.
103. Hines SJ. Aromatherapy for postoperative nausea and vomiting [thesis]. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology; 2012.
104. Walker M. Fasciotomy wounds associated with acute compartment syndrome: a systematic review of effective management [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2013.
105. Xue Y. Predictive risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonisation among adults in acute care settings: a systematic review [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2011.
106. Peters MDJ, Lisy K, Riitano D, et al. Providing meaningful care for families experiencing stillbirth: a meta-synthesis of qualitative evidence. J Perinatol
107. Kirkpatrick P, Wilson E, Wimpenny P. Research to support evidence-based practice in COPD community nursing. Br J Commun Nurs
108. Glaser HJ. The effectiveness of laser treatments for onychomycosis in adults in the community: a systematic review [thesis]. Adelaide: University of Adelaide; 2014.
109. Jayasekara RS. The effects of cognitive behaviour therapy for major depression in older adults [thesis]. Adelaide: Faculty of Health Science, The University of Adelaide; 2011.
110. Maloreh-Nyamekye T. The impact of information, education and communication (IEC) strategies in malaria prevention and control during pregnancy in Africa [thesis]. Aberdeen: Robert Gordon University; 2013.
111. Kerr S, Lawrence M, Darbyshire C, et al. Tobacco and alcohol-related interventions for people with mild/moderate intellectual disabilities: a systematic review of the literature. J Intellect Disabil Res
112. Lawrence M, Kinn S. Needs, priorities, and desired rehabilitation outcomes of family members of young adults who have had a stroke: findings from a phenomenological study. Disabil Rehabil
113. Saunders H. Translating knowledge into best practice care bundles: a pragmatic strategy for EBP implementation via moving post-procedural pain management nursing guidelines into clinical practice. J Clin Nurs
114. Copley J, Kuipers K. Splinting. Neurorehabilitation of the upper limb across the lifespan: managing hypertonicity for optimal function. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons; 2014.
115. Saini M, Shlonsky A. Systematic synthesis of qualitative research. New York: Oxford University Press; 2012.
116. Copley J, Kuipers K. The hypertonicity intervention planning model for upper limb neurorehabilitation. Neurorehabilitation of the upper limb across the lifespan: managing hypertonicity for optimal function. Oxford: John Wiley and Sons; 2014.
117. Hickey JV. The nature of evidence as a basis for evaluation. Evaluation of health care quality in advanced practice nursing. New York: Springer Publishing Company; 2012.
118. Soares CB, Sivalli Campos CM, Yonekura T. Marxism as a theoretical and methodological framework in collective health: implications for systematic review and synthesis of evidence. Rev Esc Enferm USP
119. Goldstein DH, Phelan R, Wilson R, et al. Brief review: adoption of electronic medical records to enhance acute pain management. Can J Anesth
120. Lee YM, Lockwood C. Prognostic factors for risk stratification of adult cancer patients with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Nurs Pract
121. Woodhead JM. Comparison of radial and femoral approaches for coronary angiography with or without percutaneous coronary intervention in relation to vascular access site complications [thesis]. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand; 2008.
122. Kramer DM, Wells RP, Carlan N, et al. Did you have an impact? A theory-based method for planning and evaluating knowledge-transfer and exchange activities in occupational health and safety. Int J Occup Saf Ergon
123. Murray SF, Hunter BM, Bisht R, et al. Effects of demand-side financing on utilisation, experiences and outcomes of maternity care in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
124. Robertson-Malt S. Presenting and interpreting findings the steps following data synthesis in a systematic review. ANJ
125. Williams AM, Davies A, Griffiths G. Facilitating comfort for hospitalized patients using non-pharmacological measures: Preliminary development of clinical practice guidelines. Int J Nurs Pract
126. Manojlovich M, Squires JE, Davies B, Graham ID. Hiding in plain sight: communication theory in implementation science. Implementation Sci
127. Kitson A, Wiechula R, Conroy T, et al. Case study of the signature project – an Australian-US knowledge translation
project. Implementing evidence based practice in healthcare: a facilitation guide. Abingdon: Routledge; 2015.
128. Munn Z, Lockwood C, Moola S. The development and use of evidence summaries for point of care information systems: a streamlined rapid review approach. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs
129. Kitson A, Silverston H, Wiechula R, et al. Clinical nursing leaders’, team members’ and service managers’ experiences of implementing evidence at a local level. J Nurs Manag
130. Wiechula R, Conroy T, McLiesh P. Evidence-based practice/knowledge translation
: a practical guide. Transitions in Nursing: preparing for professional practice. Chatswood: Churchill Livingstone Australia; 2015.
131. Davies HTO, Powell AE, Nutley SM. Mobilising knowledge to improve UK health care: learning from other countries and other sectors – a multimethod mapping study. Health Serv Deliv Res
132. Ward KD. Interdisciplinary assessment and intervention tools for fall prevention in decreasing fall rates, Project report. ProQuest, USA: California University of Long Beach; 2015.
133. Davies J. Nursing & health survival guide: evidence based practice. New York: Routledge; 2014.
134. Adeloye DO. The challenges of evidence based medicine in developing countries. Res J Health Sci
135. Macdonald DH. The experiences of midwives and nurses collaborating to provide birthing care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence [Master's thesis]. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Dalhousie University; 2015.
136. Shaw R, Larkin M, Flowers P. Expanding the evidence within evidence-based healthcare: thinking about the context, acceptability and feasibility of interventions. BMJ Evid Based Med
137. Schunneman H, Mustafa R, Brozek J, et al. GRADE guidelines: 16. GRADE evidence to decision frameworks for tests in clinical practice and public health. J Clin Epidemiol
138. Copely J, Allen S. Using all the available evidence: perceptions of paediatric occupational therapists about how to increase evidence based practice. Int J Evid Based Healthc
139. Piekkari R. Preface: language and communication in international management. Int Stud Manage Org
140. Ollenschlager G, Marshall C, Qureshi S, et al. Improving the quality of healthcare: using international collaboration to inform guideline development programmes by founding the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N). Qual Saf Health Care
141. Evans N, Levinson SC. The myth of language universals: language diversity and its importance for cognitive science. Behav Brain Sci
142. Larsson A (2003) Making sense of collaboration: the challenge of thinking together in global design teams, Proceeding GROUP 03. Proceedings of the 2003 International ACM SIGGROUP conference on supporting group work, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA.
143. Melnyk BM, Newhouse R. Evidence-based practice versus evidence informed practice: a debate that could stall forward momentum in improving healthcare quality, safety, patient outcomes and costs. Worldviews Evid Based Nurs
144. Pearson A, Jordan Z, Munn Z. Translation science and evidence based healthcare: a clarification and reconceptualization of how knowledge is generated and used in healthcare. Nurs Res Pract
145. Pearson A, Weeks S, Stern C. Translation science and the JBI model of evidence based healthcare. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins; 2011.