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Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Deficiency and Progressive Neuropathology in Psychiatric Disorders

A Review of Translational Evidence and Candidate Mechanisms

McNamara, Robert K., PhD; Almeida, Daniel M., MD

doi: 10.1097/HRP.0000000000000199
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Meta-analytic evidence indicates that mood and psychotic disorders are associated with both omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (omega-3 PUFA) deficits and progressive regional gray and white matter pathology. Although the association between omega-3 PUFA insufficiency and progressive neuropathological processes remains speculative, evidence from translational research suggests that omega-3 PUFA insufficiency may represent a plausible and modifiable risk factor not only for enduring neurodevelopmental abnormalities in brain structure and function, but also for increased vulnerability to neurodegenerative processes. Recent evidence from human neuroimaging studies suggests that lower omega-3 PUFA intake/status is associated with accelerated gray matter atrophy in healthy middle-aged and elderly adults, particularly in brain regions consistently implicated in mood and psychotic disorders, including the amygdala, anterior cingulate, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and temporal cortex. Human neuroimaging evidence also suggests that both low omega-3 PUFA intake/status and psychiatric disorders are associated with reductions in white matter microstructural integrity and increased rates of white matter hyperintensities. Preliminary evidence suggests that increasing omega-3 PUFA status is protective against gray matter atrophy and deficits in white matter microstructural integrity in patients with mood and psychotic disorders. Plausible mechanisms mediating this relationship include elevated pro-inflammatory signaling, increased synaptic regression, and reductions in cerebral perfusion. Together these associations encourage additional neuroimaging research to directly investigate whether increasing omega-3 PUFA status can mitigate neuropathological processes in patients with, or at high risk for, psychiatric disorders.

From the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine (Dr. McNamara); Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (Dr. Almeida).

Supported, in part, by National Institutes of Health grant nos. MH097818, MH107378, and DK097599 (Dr. McNamara).

Original manuscript received 10 January 2018, accepted for publication subject to revision 12 March 2018; revised manuscript received 29 March 2018.

Correspondence: Robert K. McNamara, PhD, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 260 Stetson St., Cincinnati, OH 45219-0516. Email: robert.mcnamara@uc.edu

© 2019 President and Fellows of Harvard College
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