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Theory-Based Low-Sodium Diet Education for Heart Failure Patients

doi: 10.1097/NHH.0b013e3181e3266f
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Theory-based Low-Sodium Diet Education for Heart Failure Patients


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GENERAL PURPOSE To present registered professional nurses with theory-based teaching strategies for promoting adherence to a low-sodium diet among patients with heart failure.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After reading this article and taking this test, you should be able to:

  1. Explain various theories helpful for educating patients who have heart failure.
  2. Plan the appropriate strategies for teaching patients who have heart failure.

1. How many million people in the U.S. have been diagnosed with heart failure (HF)?

a. about 1.1

b. just under 2.2

c. about 4.4

d. more than 5.5

2. For 2009, the direct and indirect cost of HF is estimated at

a. $18 billion.

b. $23 billion.

c. $37 billion.

d. $46 billion.

3. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) states that the most important determinant of behavior is a person's

a. behavioral intention.

b. intrinsic motivation.

c. visualized advantages.

d. flexibility potential.

4. Which of the following is an independent element of the TPB that is determined by the individual's beliefs about the outcomes of performing the behavior?

a. perceived control

b. attitude

c. subjective norm

d. expectations

5. The first step in encouraging positive behavioral beliefs in the educational protocol that the authors recommend is to

a. explain the fundamental pathophysiology of HF.

b. determine who cooks and shops for the patient.

c. present information about the sodium content of foods.

d. address the risk of hypertension from fluid retention.

6. Whether important significant others approve or disapprove of the behavior is the determinant of an individual's

a. perceived control.

b. attitude.

c. subjective norm.

d. expectations.

7. Beliefs about the availability of resources for and impediments to behavioral performance are the determinants of an individual's

a. perceived control.

b. attitude.

c. subjective norm.

d. expectations.

8. Implementation of the recommended teaching plan begins with

a. identifying the patient's family and social supports.

b. determining the patient's level of education.

c. adjusting the plan to address barriers to adherence.

d. scheduling appointments for home visits and phone calls.

9. It is recommended that a clear connection be made between the impact of which of the following on the symptoms of fluid retention and worsening HF?

a. hypertension

a. shortness of breath

c. high-sodium foods

d. appropriate fluid intake

10. An example of a teaching strategy that addresses attitude is

a. identifying appropriate community resources.

b. adjusting the plan to address barriers to adherence.

c. promoting daily weighing of the patient.

d. giving the patient information about salt substitutes.

11. An example of a teaching strategy that addresses the subjective norm is

a. providing ideas for overcoming barriers to adherence.

b. finding ways to enhance food selections.

c. encouraging the completion of food diaries.

d. including the people involved in the patient's care.

12. An example of a teaching strategy that addresses perceived behavioral control is

a. making frequent follow-up telephone calls.

b. obtaining a detailed medical history.

c. providing instruction about a low-sodium diet.

d. examining the patient's living arrangements.

13. It is recommended that the patient's recipes for favorite foods be altered to

a. exclude dairy products.

b. exclude canned foods.

c. include condensed soups.

d. include fresh vegetables.

14. To plan a sample menu, it is recommended that nurses use

a. low-calorie, commercial recipes.

b. the patient's food diary.

c. meal delivery programs.

d. modified restaurant meals.

15. When patients have upcoming social events that involve food, it is recommended that they

a. omit high-sodium foods for several meals beforehand.

b. bring their own meal from home to the event.

c. plan to eat no more than a few bites of the food at the event.

d. drink extra water when they are dining at the event.

16. Describing daily sodium intake in terms of currency is an example of which creative teaching strategy?

a. metaphor

b. hyperbole

c. simile

d. analogy



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