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Effects of Reiki on Pain, Anxiety, and Blood Pressure in Patients Undergoing Knee Replacement: A Pilot Study

Baldwin, Ann Linda PhD; Vitale, Anne PhD, APN, AHN-BC; Brownell, Elise PhD; Kryak, Elizabeth DrNP, RN-BC; Rand, William

doi: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000195

This blinded, controlled pilot study investigated the effects of Reiki on 46 patients undergoing knee replacement surgery. Of the 3 groups, Reiki, Sham Reiki, and Standard of Care, only the Reiki group showed significant reductions in pain, blood pressure, respiration rate, and state anxiety, which provides evidence for a full-scale clinical study.

Laboratory for the Advances in Consciousness and Health, Department of Psychology (Dr Baldwin), and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine (Dr Baldwin), University of Arizona, Tucson; College of Nursing and Health Professions, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Dr Vitale); ZephyrBiotech, LLC, Lafayette, California (Dr Brownell); Department of Nursing Informatics, Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, Pennsylvania (Dr Kryak); and Center for Reiki Research, Southfield, Michigan (Mr Rand).

Correspondence: Ann Linda Baldwin, PhD, Laboratory for the Advances in Consciousness and Health, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (

This work was funded by the FDC Foundation. The authors acknowledge the Department of Nursing at Abington Memorial Hospital nursing staff from the pre- and postsurgical orthopedic units for their flexibility and assistance in providing an environment conducive to the execution of the study parameters. The authors acknowledge Andrew M. Star, MD, orthopedic surgeon at Abington Health, and dedicated nurse researcher, Barbara Finn, RN, for their recruitment of patients. The authors thank the FDC Foundation, a nonprofit foundation founded by members of the Cluck family to support charitable organizations within the United States in the areas of health, education, and housing, for funding this study. The authors also acknowledge the Center of Reiki Research for help in developing and administering the project.

None of the authors have declared a conflict of interest.

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