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Care for the Caregiver: Evaluation of Mind-Body Self-Care for Accelerated Nursing Students

Drew, Barbara L. PhD, RN, PMHCNS-BC; Motter, Tracey MSN, RN; Ross, Ratchneewan PhD, RN; Goliat, Laura M. DNP, MSN, RN, FNP-BC; Sharpnack, Patricia A. DNP, RN, CNE, NEA-BC, ANEF; Govoni, Amy L. MSN, RN, CS-BC, RMT; Bozeman, Michelle C. BSN, RN, HNB-BC; Rababah, Jehad PhD Candidate, RN

doi: 10.1097/HNP.0000000000000140

Stress affects the well-being of both nursing students and the individuals with whom they work. With the theory of cognitive appraisal as a framework for this study, it is proposed that mind-body self-care strategies promote stress management by stabilization of emotions. Outcomes will be a perception of less stress and more mindful engagement with the environment. Objective of the study was to describe an evaluation of student perceived stress and mindfulness to 1-hour per week of class time dedicated to mind-body self-care (yoga, mindful breathing, Reiki, and essential oil therapy). It was a quasi-experimental study; data collection took place at 4 time points. Participants were entry-level accelerated nursing students from 3 US universities: 50 in the treatment group, 64 in the comparison group. Data included health-promoting practices using Health-Promoting Promotion Lifestyle Profile II as a control variable, stress and mindfulness (Perceived Stress Scale [PSS] and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale [MAAS]), and demographic information; analysis using mixed-design repeated-measures analysis of variances. There was a statistically significant interaction between intervention and time on PSS scores, F(3, 264) = 3.95, P = .009, partial η2 = 0.043, with PSS scores of the intervention group decreasing from baseline to T3 when intervention ended whereas PSS scores of the comparison group increased from baseline. The average scores on the MAAS did not differ significantly. Evaluation of an embedded mind-body self-care module in the first nursing course demonstrated promising improvements in stress management. The findings support the appropriateness of integrating mind-body self-care content into nursing curricula to enhance students' ability to regulate stress.

College of Nursing, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio (Drs Drew and Ross, Ms Motter, and Mr Rababah); The Breen School of Nursing, Ursuline College, Pepper Pike, Ohio (Drs Goliat and Sharpnack); School of Nursing, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio (Ms Govoni); and HeartWaves Institute, Painesville, Ohio (Ms Bozeman).

Correspondence: Barbara L. Drew, PhD, RN, PMHCNS-BC, College of Nursing, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242 (

This research was partially supported by funding from the Urban Zen Foundation. The essential oils were provided by Young Living Essential Oils.

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

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