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An Integrative Review of the Concept of Well-Being

Kiefer, Ruth Ann RN, MSN, CRRN

doi: 10.1097/01.HNP.0000334915.16186.b2

Well-being can be defined in terms of an individual's physical, mental, social, and environmental status with each aspect interacting with the other and each having differing levels of importance and impact according to each individual. A change in the different aspects of well-being of an individual may be reflected in an alteration of behavior or the performance of a task or activity. Although the current research environment has emphasized the importance of well-being, little emphasis has been placed on this concept from the individual's point of view or perspective. The definition of well-being is usually assumed or lacking in clarity with similar terms used interchangeably. Well-being has been measured in research using various scales, which may not capture the complexity of the concept. This integrative review clearly indicates the need to explore how individuals define and conceptualize health and wellness and to discover what they perceive to be the major facilitators and barriers to health and wellness for themselves and other individuals living with disability.

Drexel University, University City Main Campus, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Corresponding Author: Ruth Ann Kiefer, RN, MSN, CRRN, Drexel University, University City Main Campus, 3141 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (

The author has no conflict of interest.

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.