The Effect of Music on Pain and Acute Confusion in Older Adults Undergoing Hip and Knee SurgeryMcCaffrey, Ruth ND, ARNP-BC; Locsin, Rozzano PhD, RNHolistic Nursing Practice: September-October 2006 - Volume 20 - Issue 5 - p 218–224 CONTINUING EDUCATION Buy CE Abstract Author InformationAuthors The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of music listening in older adults following hip or knee surgery. Acute confusion and pain after surgery can increase length of stay and reduce function. Study results demonstrate a reduction in acute confusion and pain and improved ambulation and higher satisfaction scores in older adults who listened to music. Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton. Corresponding author: Ruth McCaffrey, ND, ARNP-BC, Christine E Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Rd, Boca Raton, FL 33431 (e-mail: email@example.com). © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.