Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and joint involvement. Most adults with RA experience sleep disturbances, including longer times before falling asleep, numerous awakenings during the night, and early morning wakening, resulting in excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue. This article will review what is known about sleep disturbances and the biologic basis in adults with RA, the influence of ovarian hormone levels in women with RA, how medications may influence sleep in RA, and complementary and alternative therapies that may be useful in reducing sleep disturbances.
From the Center for the Study of Complementary & Alternative Therapies, School of Nursing, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va (Bourguignon, Taibi)
The Department of Family and Child Nursing, School of Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. (Labyak)
This article was developed with partial support from (1) the Center for the Study of Complementary & Alternative Therapies—grant award T32AT00052 funded by the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health; and (2) the Center for Research on Chronic Disabilities—grant award P30 NR03962 funded by the National Institute for Nursing Research.
Corresponding author: Cheryl Bourguignon, PhD, RN, Center for the Study of Complementary & Alternative Therapies, School of Nursing, University of Virginia, Box 800905, Charlottesville, VA 22908 (e-mail: email@example.com).