1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
2Department of Anatomical, Histological, Forensic Medicine and Orthopaedics Sciences, University Sapienza of Rome, Rome, Italy
3Unit of Hepatology, Tor Vergata University, Rome, Italy
4Research, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
5Department of Nutrition, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA
6Department of Movement, Human and Health Sciences, University of Rome “Foro Italico”, Rome, Italy
7Division of Transplant Surgery, Department of Surgery, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana, USA
8Department of Medical Physiology, Texas A&M University School of Medicine, Bryan, Texas, USA
Abbreviations: α-SMA, α-smooth muscle actin; Angpt, angiopoietin; CD31, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1; CK-19, cytokeratin-19; Col1, collagen type I; Col1a1, collagen type I, alpha 1; DR, ductular reaction; EGTA, ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid; ERK1/2, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; Fn-1, fibronectin-1; FoxA2, forkhead box protein A2; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; Ki67, cell proliferation antigen Ki67; Mdr2, multidrug resistance 2; p-, phosphorylated; p16, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; p18, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2C; p21, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; PBC, primary biliary cholangitis; PCNA, proliferating cell nuclear antigen; PKA, protein kinase A; PSC, primary sclerosing cholangitis; qPCR, quantitative real-time PCR; SA-β-gal, senescence associated-β-galactosidase; SCT, secretin; SR, secretin receptor; Smad, mothers against decapentaplegic homolog; WT, wild type; vWF, von Willebrand factor.
Nan Wu and Tianhao Zhou share the first authorship.
Correspondence Heather Francis, Research Career Scientist, Indiana Center for Liver Research, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center and Indiana University, Gastroenterology, Medicine, 702 Rotary Circle, Rm. 013B, Indianapolis, IN 46202-2859, USA. Email: [email protected] Shannon Glaser, Texas A&M University School of Medicine, MREBII –Office 2342, 8447 Riverside Parkway, Bryan, TX 77807, USA. Email: [email protected] Gianfranco Alpini, VA Senior Research Scientist, Indiana Center for Liver Research, Richard L. Roudebush VA Medical Center and Indiana University, Gastroenterology, Medicine, 702 Rotary Circle, Rm. 013C Indianapolis, IN 46202-2859, USA. Email: [email protected]
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