Pregnant women with SCD are at an increased risk for maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality (1,2). The numerous potential maternal complications include anaemia, acute crisis, preeclampsia, eclampsia, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and acute chest syndrome (3,4,5,6). In addition, Pregnant women with SCD had lower maternal weight and gestational weight gain (7,8).
The aim of this study was to compare the pregnancy outcomes between pregnant women with Sickle Cell Disease and pregnant women without Sickle Cell Disease and to measure the difference in weight gain between two groups.
A quantitative retrospective cohort study carried out between January 2012 and December 2017 in Maternal and Children Hospital and Primary Health Care centres in Al-Ahsa, an eastern region of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The study population included all SCD patients who were registered for antenatal care follow up in the MCH and, on the other side, pregnant women without SCD from the primary health care centres depending on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The total sample size was 429. One hundred forty-three pregnant women with Sickle Cell at the Maternity and Children Hospital and 286 pregnant non-Sickle Cell from PHCCs were recruited by matching in residency. The data collection sheet used to gather patient information was prepared based on the card of antenatal care in the Ministry of Health and literature review.
Weight, BMI, and haemoglobin level at the first antenatal visit showed a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.001). Forty-three present of women with SCD had cesarean sections, compared to 13.9% of women without SCD, and there was a statistically significant association between them (P < 0.001). Maternal weight gain was lower in women with Sickle Cell Disease and showed statistically significant (P < 0.001). Women with Sickle Cell Disease had an increased risk of Caesarean section (AOR = 3.807, 95%CI = 2.074-6.987, P < 0.001).
Women with Sickle Cell Disease are more likely to have adverse pregnancy outcomes compared to women without Sickle Cell Disease. Women with Sickle Cell Disease had lower weight gain during pregnancy.