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Foundation of Evidence-Based Decision Making for Health Care Managers—Part II: Meta-analysis and Applying the Evidence

Forrestal, Elizabeth J. PhD, RHIA, CCS, FAHIMA

doi: 10.1097/HCM.0000000000000016

This article is a continuation of a 2-part series that seeks to build the skills of health care managers and supervisors in critically reading and interpreting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The first article, part I, defined the types of systematic reviews and outlined the process of conducting them. This article, part II, focuses on meta-analysis, a type of systematic review. This article explains the additional procedures associated with meta-analyses and describes the potential shortcomings of both systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Finally, this article provides a way for health care managers and supervisors to appraise systematic reviews and meta-analyses and to determine whether the evidence applies to their problems and settings.

Author Affiliation: Health Services and Information Management, East Carolina University, Greenville, North Carolina.

The author has no conflict of interest.

Correspondence: Elizabeth J. Forrestal, PhD, RHIA, CCS, FAHIMA, College of Allied Health Sciences, Mail Code 668, 4340Q Health Sciences Bldg, Greenville, NC 27858-4353 (

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