ArticleContribution of the Psychosocial Work Environment to Psychological Distress Among Health Care Professionals Before and During a Major Organizational ChangeLavoie-Tremblay, Melanie PhD, RN; Bonin, Jean-Pierre PhD, RN; Lesage, Alain D. MD, FRCP(C), MPhil, DFAPA; Bonneville-Roussy, Arielle; Lavigne, Geneviève L.; Laroche, Dominique MScAuthor Information Authors Affiliations: School of Nursing, McGill University (Dr Lavoie-Tremblay); Fernand Séguin Research Centre, Hôpital Louis-H. Lafontaine (Drs Lavoie-Tremblay, Bonin, and Lesage and Ms Laroche); Faculty of Nursing (Dr Bonin) and Department of Psychiatry, Université de Montréal (Dr Lesage), Université de Montréal; and University of Quebec at Montreal, (Mss Bonneville-Roussy and Lavigne), Quebec, Canada. Ms Bonneville-Roussy is a master's degree student and Ms Lavigne is a doctoral student at the University of Quebec at Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Correspondence: Melanie Lavoie-Tremblay, PhD, RN, School of Nursing, McGill University, 3506 University St, Montréal, QC, Canada H3A 2A7 ([email protected]). The Health Care Manager: October 2010 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p 293-304 doi: 10.1097/HCM.0b013e3181fa022e Buy Metrics Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between 4 dimensions of the psychosocial work environment (psychological demands, decision latitude, social support, and effort-reward) among health care professionals as well as their psychological distress during a reorganization process. A correlational descriptive design was used for this quantitative study. A total of 159 health care professionals completed the questionnaire at T1, and 141 at T2. First, before the work reorganization, effort-reward imbalance was the sole variable of the psychological work environment that significantly predicted psychological distress. Second, the high overall level of psychological distress increased during the process of organizational change (from T1 to T2). Finally, effort-reward imbalance, high psychological demands, and low decision latitude were all significant predictors of psychological distress at T2, during the organizational change. In conclusion, to reduce the expected negative outcomes of restructuring on health care practitioners, managers could increase the number of opportunities for rewards, carefully explain the demands, and clarify the tasks to be performed by each of the employees to reduce their psychological burden and increase their perceptions of autonomy. © 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.