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Vasilenko, E K.*; Khokhryakov, V F.; Miller, S C.; Fix, J J.§; Eckerman, K**; Choe, D O.††; Gorelov, M*; Khokhryakov, V V.; Knyasev, V*; Krahenbuhl, M P.††; Scherpelz, R I.‡‡; Smetanin, M*; Suslova, K; Vostrotin, V

doi: 10.1097/01.HP.0000266071.43137.0e

The Mayak Production Association (MPA) was the first plutonium production plant in the former Soviet Union. Workers at the MPA were exposed to relatively large internal radiation intakes and external radiation exposures, particularly in the early years of plant operations. This paper describes the updated dosimetry database, “Doses-2005.” Doses-2005 represents a significant improvement in the determination of absorbed organ dose from external radiation and plutonium intake for the original cohort of 18,831 Mayak workers. The methods of dose reconstruction of absorbed organ doses from external radiation uses: 1) archive records of measured dose and worker exposure history, 2) measured energy and directional response characteristics of historical Mayak film dosimeters, and 3) calculated dose conversion factors for Mayak Study-defined exposure scenarios using Monte Carlo techniques. The methods of dose reconstruction for plutonium intake uses two revised models developed from empirical data derived from bioassay and autopsy cases and/or updates from prevailing or emerging International Commission on Radiological Protection models. Other sources of potential significant exposure to workers such as medical diagnostic x-rays, ambient onsite external radiation, neutron radiation, intake of airborne effluent, and intake of nuclides other than plutonium were evaluated to determine their impact on the dose estimates.

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

* Mayak Production Association, Ozyorsk, Russia; † Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia; ‡ Division of Radiobiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; § Dade Moeller & Associates, Richland, WA; ** Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN; †† Division of Nuclear Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT; ‡‡ Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA.

For correspondence contact: S.C. Miller, University of Utah, 729 Arapeen Drive, Suite 2334, Salt Lake City, UT 84108, or email at; or V.F. Khokhryakov, Southern Urals Biophysics Institute, Ozyorskoye shosse 19, Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region, 456780 Russia, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 22 March 2007)

©2007Health Physics Society