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Information for Authors

​​​Introduction

Health Physics is the official journal of the Health Physics Society (HPS). Health Physics publishes impactful and high-quality research related to radiation safety and protection of workers, the public, and the environment. The Journal is committed to publishing articles on innovative topics and research that influence future practice, science, and technological advances in the field of radiation safety. The Journal is published by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, an imprint of Wolters Kluwer.

ScopeHealth Physics, first published in 1958, provides the latest research to a wide variety of radiation safety professionals including health physicists, nuclear chemists, medical physicists, and radiation safety officers with interests in nuclear and radiation science. The Journal allows professionals in these and other disciplines in science and engineering to stay on the cutting edge of scientific and technological advances in the field of radiation safety. The Journal publishes original papers, technical notes, articles on advances in practical applications, editorials, and correspondence. Journal articles report on the latest findings in theoretical, practical, and applied disciplines of epidemiology and radiation effects, radiation biology and radiation science, radiation ecology, and related fields.

保健物理 (Health Physics) 期刊首次出版于1958年,為從事与辐射防护有關的各类专业人士,譬如保健物理学家、核化学家、医学物理学家,以及关注核能与辐射科学的辐射防护安全官等提供最新的科研成果。 本刊旨在使上述及其他科学和工程学科的专业人士了解保健物理领域在科学技术方面的最前沿进展。 保健物理 (Health Physics) 期刊发表的内容包括原创论文、技术札记、实际应用进展报告、社论以及通信等。 本刊文章反映在诸如流行病学与辐射效应、辐射生物学与放射学,以及放射生态学等理论、实践及应用学科中的最新发现。学科名不一一列举。

Article Types. ​Health Physics publishes the following types of manuscripts.

  • Paper: A full treatment of new and original research or a thorough examination of an applied problem. If presenting new research, a paper must be the first publication of original research results presented in a way that enables readers to repeat the experiments and test the conclusions. A paper defines a problem, describes methods to study the problem, presents new results, puts the results into perspective with existing literature, and extends our knowledge of the subject.
  • Review article: A summary, analysis, or synthesis of information that has already been published. While most review articles deal with a scientific topic, some may review an operational health physics problem. A review article normally has only one or two authors who are experts on the subject.
  • Note: A preliminary or short communication that adds to our knowledge of a problem or describes a technique or approach to a problem. A note may contain original data often accompanied by interesting speculation, although it may not tie down all loose ends or make conclusions about the overall aspects of the research problem. Final conclusions about a research problem are often found in a full paper. The length of a note should not exceed four Journal pages (12 typed, double-spaced pages).
  • Operational topics article: A description of an applied problem or investigation, along with methods and discussion of results, or a description and evaluation of an operational program that has proven successful and may be useful to others. Shorter manuscripts of this type may briefly but completely describe one aspect of an applied program, such as a new approach to personnel monitoring, a unique instrument calibration facility, or some other program element. Operational topics articles include results of measurements to demonstrate improvements in a program, validate models, show trends, or otherwise strengthen the article. 
  • Forum article: An opinion from an expert in the subject described, a suggestion for setting the direction of the profession, or a review of a current professional problem. Committee reports and HPS position papers are published as forum articles.
  • Letter: A single piece of new information, comments on editorial policy or recent (i.e. published in the journal within the past year) content of Health Physics, or a response to criticism or comments in another letter. A letter to the editor expresses a personal point of view.
  • Book review: A review of a recently published book. Book reviews are typically written by the Journal's book editor, but other submissions may be considered. If you are interested in writing a book review, contact Journal book editor Michael G. Stabin, [email protected].
  • Special submission: A statement by the Health Physics Society or another professional society or expert advisory body. These submissions have not been peer-reviewed by Health Physics but may have been peer-reviewed by the authoring organization. Health Physics publishes these submissions as they are provided by the authors with little to no editing.

Review and Editing Process. After you have submitted your manuscript, a Health Physics associate editor and two peer reviewers (selected by the associate editor) will review it using a double-blind process. The reviewers will evaluate your manuscript's scientific or technical merit, originality, practicality, interest to our readers, and conformance with these guidelines. The reviewers will decide if your manuscript should be accepted, revised, or rejected, and you will be notified of their decision. If your manuscript requires revisions, you can resubmit the revised manuscript. At this point, your manuscript may be accepted, rejected, or the peer-review process may be repeated. When your manuscript is accepted, Journal editors will copyedit it to conform to Journal style requirements. You will be asked to review and approve any changes to your manuscript before it is published.

Ethics: Your Responsibilities
Health Physics does not tolerate plagiarism or any misrepresentation of original work. Your submitted manuscript must be an original contribution not previously published (except as an abstract or a preliminary report), must not be under consideration for publication elsewhere, and if accepted must not be published elsewhere in similar form, in any language, without the consent of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Health Physics uses plagiarism detection software to screen submitted manuscripts against previously published works. Additional information on plagiarism is available in "Health Physics Society Guide: Journal Authors' Guide to Writing Responsibly."

Authorship. Authors are responsible for the entire content of their manuscript, including text, tables, figures, and references. While the publishers and editorial board make every effort to ensure that no inaccurate or misleading data, opinions, or statements appear in Health Physics, you must be aware that data and opinions appearing in articles and advertisements in Health Physics are the sole responsibility of the contributor or advertiser concerned. Accordingly, the publisher, editors, and their respective employers, officers, and agents accept no responsibility or liability for the consequences of any such inaccurate or misleading data, opinions, or statements.

Each person listed as an author must have participated in the described work to a significant extent. The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) publication Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals provides the following criteria for determining who should be listed as an author:

The ICMJE recommends that authorship be based on the following four criteria: 

1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND 

2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content; AND 

3. Final approval of the version to be published; AND 

4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.

After your paper has been published, no changes in authorship are allowed. Additional guidance on authorship and other ethical concerns is available in the ICMJE publication (ICMJE 2017).

Conflicts of Interest. State all possible conflicts of interest in the manuscript, including financial, consulting, institutional, or other relationships that might lead to bias or a conflict of interest. If there is no conflict of interest, state this. 

Copyright. Each author must complete the Journal's copyright transfer agreement. Submitting authors complete this agreement during the electronic submission process; coauthors automatically receive an email with instructions for completing the agreement. The agreement includes a section on the disclosure of potential conflicts of interest based on ICMJE recommendations (ICMJE 2017).

If you borrow others' copyrighted material, you must obtain written permission from the copyright owner and complete details about the source. If Wolters Kluwer or HPS is the copyright holder of the borrowed material, you can obtain permission to use the material from the Journal article website or by sending an email to [email protected]. Additional information is available in the Lippincott Williams & Wilkins author permission guidelines, and copyright permissions are described in detail in Health Physics Society Guide: Journal Authors' Guide to Writing Responsibly

Dissertation policy. Authors are permitted to use the final peer reviewed manuscript (post peer-review and acceptance for publication, but prior to publisher's copyediting and formatting) in their thesis/dissertation. 

If authors would like to post their thesis/dissertation to an institutional repository, they need to ensure the following as per below:

For additional information, please review the Author's Permission Document

Patient Anonymity and Informed Consent. You are responsible for ensuring that a patient's anonymity is carefully protected. You are also responsible for verifying that any experimental investigation using human subjects reported in the manuscript was performed with informed consent and following all the guidelines for experimental investigation with human subjects required by all the institutions with which all the authors are affiliated. You should remove patients' names and other identifying information from figures. If any identifying details appear in text, tables, or figures, you must provide proof of informed consent obtained from the patient (i.e., a signed permission form). Photographs with bars placed over eyes of patients should not be used in your publication, but if they are absolutely necessary, written permission from the patient is required.

Before You Begin
Fees. If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you will be assessed page charges of $75.00 per final printed page. These page charges help cover some costs of publication and are essential to the continuing operations of the Journal. Upon payment, 50 electronic reprints will be sent to the corresponding author.

Student or retired members of HPS may be eligible for a waiver of page charges. Additional information and a Page Charge Waiver form that can be submitted with your manuscript is available online

If you require color on your figures, tables, or artwork, you will be charged $500 for the first color figure and $150 for each additional color figure. Note that these fees may change without notice.

Funding Agency Accessibility Requirements

  • U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Effective 1 October 2014, DOE enacted its Public Access Plan requiring grantees to make a version of their articles publicly accessible. Health Physics supports authors' compliance with this policy by allowing the postprint version (the version that has been peer reviewed and accepted but not the final published article) to be made available in the DOE's designated repository-Public Access Gateway for Energy and Science (PAGES)-12 months after the publication of the final version of the article. You are responsible for submitting articles to the DOE repository and for complying with the 12-month embargo. Answers to questions that are frequently asked by Health Physics authors about the DOE repository are available online
  • Other agencies. Several other research funding agencies now require or request that authors submit the postprint version (the version that has been peer reviewed and accepted but not the final published article) of their article to a repository that is accessible online by all without charge. As a service to Health Physics authors, the Journal's publisher will identify to the National Library of Medicine articles that require deposit and will transmit the postprint version of an article based on research funded in whole or in part by the National Institutes of Health, Wellcome Trust, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, or other funding agencies to PubMed Central. Answers to questions that are frequently asked by Health Physics authors about these agencies' requirements are available online.

Open Access 
Authors of accepted peer-reviewed articles have the choice to pay a fee to allow perpetual unrestricted online access to their published article to readers globally, immediately upon publication. Authors may take advantage of the open access option at the point of acceptance to ensure that this choice has no influence on the peer review and acceptance process. These articles are subject to the journal's standard peer-review process and will be accepted or rejected based on their own merit.

The article processing charge (APC) is charged on acceptance of the article and should be paid within 30 days by the author, funding agency, or institution. Payment must be processed for the article to be published open access. For pricing, please visit our Wolters Kluwer Open Health Journals page and search under Radiology:

Hybrid Open Access for Articles Accepted for Publication (editage.com)

Please note that members of the Health Physics society are eligible for a 25% discount off the APC charges.

Authors retain copyright 
Authors retain their copyright for all articles they opt to publish open access. Authors grant Wolters Kluwer an exclusive license to publish the article and the article is made available under the terms of a Creative Commons user license. (https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lippincott-journals/lippincott-open-access/faq)

Creative Commons license 
Open access articles are freely available to read, download and share from the time of publication under the terms of the Creative Commons License Attribution-NonCommerical No Derivative (CC BY-NC-ND) license. This license does not permit reuse for any commercial purposes nor does it cover the reuse or modification of individual elements of the work (such as figures, tables, etc.) in the creation of derivative works without specific permission. 

Compliance with funder mandated open access policies 
An author whose work is funded by an organization that mandates the use of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license is able to meet that requirement through the available open access license for approved funders. Information about the approved funders can be found here: http://www.wkopenhealth.com/inst-fund.php

RCUK- and Wellcome-funded authors can choose to publish their paper as open access with the payment of an article-processing charge (gold route) or opt for their accepted manuscript to be deposited (green route) into PubMed Central with an embargo. With both the gold and green open access options, the author will need to complete the electronic copyright transfer agreement, as it provides the mechanism for the publisher to ensure that the author is fully compliant with the requirements. After signing the copyright transfer agreement, the author will then sign a license to publish by which they will then own the copyright. Authors who wish to publish their article via the gold route will be able to publish under the terms of a Creative Commons attribution (CCBY) 4.0 license. Authors who wish to publish their article via the green route will be able to publish under the rights of a Creative Commons attribution, noncommercial (CC BY-NC) 4.0 license.

It is your responsibility to inform the Health Physics editors or publisher that you have RCUK funding. The publisher will not be held responsible for retroactive deposits to PubMed Central if you have not completed the proper forms.

WK Funder-mandated open access policies: https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lippincott-journals/lippincott-open-access/partner/institutions

WK OA FAQ page: https://www.wolterskluwer.com/en/solutions/lippincott-journals/lippincott-open-access/faq

Preparing Your Manuscript
Please note that if you do not adhere to the following instructions, your manuscript will be returned to the corresponding author, and you will be asked to revise the manuscript before it goes out for peer review.

ENGLISH LANGUAGE ASSISTANCE FOR AUTHORS 
Appropriate use of the English language is a requirement for publication in Health Physics. Authors who have difficulty in writing in English may seek assistance with grammar and style to improve the clarity of their manuscript. Many companies provide substantive editing via the Web. Website addresses for these companies include:

Please note that neither Lippincott Williams & Wilkins nor the Journal takes responsibility for, or endorses, these services. Their use does not guarantee acceptance of a manuscript for publication.

Software. Microsoft Word is the preferred word-processing software, but other current word-processing formats and plain text files are acceptable. The submission software, Editorial Manager, supports the following programs and formats: Word, WordPerfect, rich text format (RTF), text (TXT), PICT, tagged image file format (TIFF), encapsulated PostScript (EPS), and PowerPoint (PPT). Do not use LaTeX or other math/text programs; with such programs, symbols may not be translated correctly when your manuscript is prepared for review and publication.

Format. Refer to the Health Physics Society's publications style guide. Refer to Section I for general guidelines and Section III for specific Journal guidelines.

Title Page. Every manuscript (except letters) must include a title page. Format is detailed in the Health Physics Society's publications style guide, Section I general guidance and Section III specific Journal guidance. Because the Journal uses double-blind review, you must take precautions to ensure that reviewers cannot identify you or your coauthors. Reviewers will not see the title page that you submit.

  • Submit the title page as a separate file from the manuscript.
  • On the title page, include the title of the manuscript, all authors names and affiliations, and the corresponding author's full mailing address and email.
  • List an author's affiliation that is no longer current (e.g., to acknowledge a funding source from a previous employer) as follows: [Current affiliation or address]; formerly at [previous affiliation or address].
  • On the title page, provide information about funding sources and make any acknowledgments necessary. 

Abstract and Keywords. Every manuscript (except letters) must include an abstract (structured or traditional) and keywords. Format is detailed in the Health Physics Society's publications style guide, Section I general guidance and Section III specific Journal guidance.

  • Structured abstractHealth Physics Journal strongly encourages you to prepare a structured abstract for your manuscript. Structured abstracts are more easily found by Internet search engines, so they make your manuscript more visible and increase your article's impact. Structured abstracts may not, however, be appropriate for all types of manuscripts; it is your choice as author. If you decide to prepare a structured abstract, include a few concise sentences under each of the following topic headings: objective (one sentence), methods, results, conclusions. An example of a structured abstract is available on the PubMed.gov website.
  • Traditional abstract. If you decide that a structured abstract is not appropriate for your manuscript, you must include a traditional abstract-one concise paragraph summarizing the most important information from your manuscript. The abstract should contain a short statement of the purpose or objectives of your study, a brief description of your methods, and your major conclusions. 

Color. In the print edition of Health Physics, figures, tables, and artwork will appear in black and white unless you agree to pay color charges. Fees for color figures are provided above in the section Before You Begin: Fees. In the electronic edition of Health Physics, you may designate color for your figures, tables, and artwork for no extra fee. 

Figures, Tables, and Artwork

  • Electronic line art: Scan images at a resolution of at least 1,200 dots per inch (dpi).
  • Electronic photography: Save electronic photography (radiographs, computed tomography scans, etc.) at a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Files should be set to the size you want to see the images in the Journal.
  • Saving files: For both line art and photographs, each illustration must be in an individual file and must include any labels, arrows, and symbols that are to appear in the printed figure. Do not include author names in the file names to prevent reviewers from identifying the authors.
  • Color images: Save color images as cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) files. The Journal accepts color figures that will enhance an article. Authors who submit color figures will receive an estimate of the cost for color reproduction. If you decide not to pay for color reproduction, you can request that the figures be converted to black and white at no charge.
  • Some common mistakes in submitting electronic artwork:
    • Saving TIFF files at a resolution below 300 dpi. The dpi of a TIFF image is determined by the digital camera. Be sure to shoot images at the proper resolution. If images have been photographed by normal methods, printed into glossies, and then scanned, the scanner determines the dpi of the electronic file and must be set properly.
    • Incorrect adjustment of shading. The process of setting images into the Journal is different from printing them on a laser printer. One result of this discrepancy is that the shading settings commonly used for printing to a printer (shading at 100% black and 100% white) are mistakenly used on images to be printed in the Journal. The result is that images look stark and details are obliterated. The shading settings on images to be printed in the Journal are 93% black and 93% white.
    • Submitting color images as red, blue, green (RGB) rather than cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) files. This problem is created by a discrepancy between desktop procedures and journal-printing procedures. On your computer you view images in RGB format because the computer screen is set to show images in that color spectrum. In printing, however, color is created with CMYK, and files must be set accordingly. Almost all images downloaded from the Internet are in RGB and are not acceptable. 

References. References are an important part of your manuscript; they show that you have researched your topic thoroughly, are responsible in recognizing the work of others and avoiding plagiarism, and respect the readers' need to consult your sources. For all these reasons, your references must be complete and properly formatted. Format is detailed in the Health Physics Society's publications style guide, Section I general guidance and Section III specific Journal guidance. 

Because the Journal uses double-blind review, you must take precautions to ensure that reviewers cannot identify you or your coauthors from the references you cite.

  • Limit the references to your own work or those of your coauthors to those that are essential and relevant to the manuscript.
  • In the text, refer to your own work or that of your coauthors by the authors' names (e.g., research by [authors' names] shows; not "our research shows"), then cite the work in the same way as all other references using the author/date system. 

Supplemental Digital Content (SDC). You may submit supplementary materials that enhance your article's text to be considered for online posting. SDC may include standard media such as text documents, graphs, audio, video, etc. SDC may be submitted through the Journal's online submission system. If an article with SDC is accepted, the production staff will create a URL with the SDC file. The URL will be placed in the citation within your article. SDC files are not copyedited by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins staff, and they will be presented digitally as submitted. A list of all available file types and detailed instructions can be found online. E-notation is acceptable in SDC spreadsheets and other computer programs (e.g., you may use 2.58E-4 instead of 2.58 x 10-4), although E-notation is not acceptable in the manuscript text.

SDC Citations. Cite SDC consecutively in the text of your manuscript. Citations should: 

  • Include the type of material submitted (audio, figure, table, etc.). 
  • Be clearly labeled as "Supplemental Digital Content." 
  • Be numbered sequentially with the prefix "SDC"; for example, Fig. SDC1, Fig. SDC2, Table SDC1, Table SDC2. This will help distinguish SDC from regular text figures and tables.
  • Include the sequential list number you assign to the material (discussed in SDC List, below).
  • Provide a description of the supplemental content. Include all descriptive text in the citation as it will not appear elsewhere in the article.
  • Example: We performed many tests on the degrees of flexibility in the elbow (shown in video SDC 1, which demonstrates elbow flexibility), and we found our results to be inconclusive.

SDC List. Submit a list of SDC files at the end of your manuscript file. Include the SDC number and file type. This text will be removed by the production staff and will not be published. Example: Supplemental Digital Content 1.wmv

SDC Files. All acceptable file types are permissible up to 10 MB. For audio or video files greater than 10 MB, check with the Journal office for approval.

Submitting Your Manuscript
You are encouraged to submit your manuscript online through the Journal's website. The site provides guidelines for electronic submission of manuscripts, instructions and advice on how to use the system, guidance on the creation/scanning and saving of electronic art, and supporting documentation. In addition to allowing you to submit your manuscript online, the site allows you to follow the progression of your manuscript through the peer-review process. If you need assistance submitting your manuscript, refer to the online tutorial or contact the Journal Editorial Office.

Preprints

A preprint is an early version of a manuscript that is made available to the public before peer-review by depositing it in one of several internationally recognized preprint servers. A preprint is not considered prior publication of the manuscript.

If you have used a preprint server for your paper, you must disclose that in the cover letter of the submission and include it in a section labeled "Publication history".  For example:

"Publication history: This manuscript was previously published in bioRxiv: doi:https://doi.org/10.1101/307788125."

Also, if your manuscript is accepted for publication in Health Physics or Operational Radiation Safety, it is your responsibility to update the preprint with the DOI and a link to the final published version of the manuscript.

Software. Preferably, submit your manuscript text file and any table files as Microsoft Word files. Submit figures and other artwork as tagged image file format (TIFF), encapsulated PostScript (EPS), or PowerPoint (PPT) files. 

Uploading Your Manuscript. After logging into the Editorial Manager system, click on the Submit New Manuscript link. Follow the instructions as you are prompted.

Uploading Tables and Figures. Upload tables and figures as individual files separate from your manuscript file; they should not appear as part of the manuscript text. You will see a pull-down menu bar for the file description. Select Table and then upload the table files one at a time (e.g., if you have five tables, do this five times, once for each table). You should also do this for your figures: change the description of the file to Figure, and upload all figures as separate files. 

Suggesting Reviewers. Through the Editorial Manager system, you will have an opportunity to identify reviewers who can review and comment on your manuscript. To ensure a timely review, identify only those reviewers that you know are available and are qualified to review your work. The Journal Editorial Office may contact the reviewers you suggest; please do not contact potential reviewers yourself. Because the Journal uses a double-blind peer-review process, you will not know which reviewers have agreed to comment on your manuscript nor will they know your identity.

Electronic Copyright Transfer Agreement. The copyright transfer agreement form is made available to the submitting author during the Editorial Manager submission process. Coauthors will automatically receive an email with instructions for completing the form upon submission.

Revising Your Manuscript

The Journal uses a double-blind peer-review process. This means that reviewers do not know the authors' identities, and the authors don't know the reviewers' identities. After the reviewers provide comments on your manuscript, you must consider and provide a response to the comments.

Responding to Comments. Either incorporate the reviewers' and associate editor's comments into the text and art, or explain your reasons for not incorporating their comments on a point-by-point basis. Note that you must ensure that the file you are revising is the most recent version of the manuscript.

Deadlines. We request that you submit your revised manuscript as soon as possible, but no later than three months after receiving comments to keep your manuscript in active status. Manuscripts returned after three months will be treated as new submissions and will require further peer review. Revised manuscripts returned within one month will receive priority-handling status by the Editorial Office staff and associate editors.

Manuscript Acceptance. The decision to accept or reject a manuscript is made by the Journal editor in chief and is based on recommendations of the associate editors following peer review.

When Your Manuscript is Accepted
Proofs. You will receive typeset page proofs as a pdf file from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins prior to publication. You must proofread the pages (especially tables and equations), mark up the pdf electronically with your revisions (if any) and responses to author queries, and submit the proofs to the Editorial Office by uploading the pdf and revised files to the Editorial Manager system no later than two working days after you receive the proofs. If you think you will need more time to review your proof, please contact the Editorial Office to let us know. Even if you have no changes to the proofs, you must upload the pdf file of page proofs.

Fees. If your manuscript is accepted for publication, you will be assessed page charges (discussed above in the section Before You Begin: Fees). You or your institution are expected to pay the page charges unless they have been waived (e.g., for students or retirees). Billing will follow publication. 

Reprints. When you have submitted payment, you will receive 50 free electronic reprints. 

Contacts

  • Editor in chief, Health Physics Journal
    Brant A. Ulsh
    Phone: 1-513-805-3445; email: [email protected]

  • Editor in chief, Operational Radiation Safety
    Craig Little
    Phone: 1-970-260-2810; fax: 1-309-214-5624; email: [email protected]

  • Managing editor, Health Physics Journal
    Mary Gene Ryan
    Phone: 1-843-670-9668; email: [email protected]

  • Managing editor, Operational Radiation Safety; editorial assistant Health Physics Journal
    Deanna Baker
    Phone: 1-717-469-0880; email: [email protected]

  • Translation rights and licensing queries
    Translations Rights, Licensing & Permissions Manager
    Wolters Kluwer Health (Medical Research) Ltd
    [email protected]

  • Special projects and reprints (US/Canada)
    Alan Moore, Director of Sales
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
    Two Commerce Square, 2001 Market Street
    Philadelphia, PA 19103
    Phone: 1-215-521-8638; email: [email protected] or [email protected]

References

International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE). Recommendations for the conduct, reporting, editing and publication of scholarly work in medical journals. ICMJE website [online]; 2017. Available at http://www.icmje.org/icmje-recommendations.pdf. Accessed 8 October 2018.