An effective medical response to a large-scale radiation event requires prompt and effective initial triage so that appropriate care can be provided to individuals with significant risk for severe acute radiation injury. Arguably, it would be advantageous to use injury rather than radiation dose for the initial assessment; i.e., use bioassays of biological damage. Such assays would be based on changes in intrinsic biological response elements; e.g., up- or down-regulation of genes, proteins, metabolites, blood cell counts, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, micro-RNA, cytokines, or transcriptomes. Using a framework to evaluate the feasibility of biodosimetry for triaging up to a million people in less than a week following a major radiation event, Part 1 analyzes the logistical feasibility and clinical needs for ensuring that biomarkers of organ-specific injury could be effectively used in this context. We conclude that the decision to use biomarkers of organ-specific injury would greatly benefit by first having independent knowledge of whether the person’s exposure was heterogeneous and, if so, what was the dose distribution (to determine which organs were exposed to high doses). In Part 2, we describe how these two essential needs for prior information (heterogeneity and dose distribution) could be obtained by using in vivo nail dosimetry. This novel physical biodosimetry method can also meet the needs for initial triage, providing non-invasive, point-of-care measurements made by non-experts with immediate dose estimates for four separate anatomical sites. Additionally, it uniquely provides immediate information as to whether the exposure was homogeneous and, if not, it can estimate the dose distribution. We conclude that combining the capability of methods such as in vivo EPR nail dosimetry with bioassays to predict organ-specific damage would allow effective use of medical resources to save lives.