The strategy toward personalized medicine in radiation oncology, nuclear medicine, and diagnostic and interventional radiology demands a specific set of assays for individualized estimation of radiation load for safety concerns and prognosis of normal tissue reactions caused by ionizing radiation. Apparently, it seems reasonable to use validated radiation dosimetric biomarkers for these purposes. However, a number of gaps in knowledge and methodological limitations still have to be resolved until dosimetric biomarkers will start to play a valuable role in clinical practice beyond radiation protection and radiation medicine. An extensive international multicenter research is necessary to improve the methodology of clinical applications of biodosimetry. That became a rationale for launching the IAEA Coordinated Research Project E35010 MEDBIODOSE: “Applications of Biological Dosimetry Methods in Radiation Oncology, Nuclear Medicine, and Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology.” At the 2nd Coordination Meeting on MEDBIODOSE (18–22 February 2019, Recife, Brazil), participants reported progress in the usage of biological dosimetry for genotoxicity assessment and/or individualization of radiotherapy treatment plans. Another avenue of research was the prognosis of normal tissue toxicity and cancer risk prediction using biomarkers’ yield measured in vivo or after ex vivo irradiation of patients’ cells. Other important areas are mechanisms of cytogenetic radiation response, validation of new radiation biomarkers, development of innovative techniques, automated and high-throughput assays for biodosimetry, and the overall improvement of biodosimetry service. An important aspect of clinical application of biodosimetry is standardization of techniques and unification of approaches to data interpretation. The new IAEA Biodosimetry/Radiobiology Laboratory, which is being established, will provide support for this activity. The declared lab’s mission includes, among other tasks, a harmonization of the biodosimetry applications with relevant international standards, guidelines on good laboratory practice, and the IAEA EPR-Biodosimetry manual.