Thyroid doses were estimated for 607 subjects of a case-control study of thyroid cancer nested in the cohort of 150,813 male Ukrainian cleanup workers who were exposed to radiation as a result of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. Individual thyroid doses due to external irradiation, inhalation of 131I and short-lived radioiodine and radiotellurium isotopes (132I, 133I, 135I, 131mTe, and 132Te) during the cleanup mission, and intake of 131I during residence in contaminated settlements were calculated for all study subjects, along with associated uncertainty distributions. The average thyroid dose due to all exposure pathways combined was estimated to be 199 mGy (median: 47 mGy; range: 0.15 mGy to 9.0 Gy), with averages of 140 mGy (median: 20 mGy; range: 0.015 mGy to 3.6 Gy) from external irradiation during the cleanup mission, 44 mGy (median: 12 mGy; range: ~0 mGy to 1.7 Gy) due to 131I inhalation, 42 mGy (median: 7.3 mGy; range: 0.001 mGy to 3.4 Gy) due to 131I intake during residence, and 11 mGy (median: 1.6 mGy; range: ~0 mGy to 0.38 Gy) due to inhalation of short-lived radionuclides. Internal exposure of the thyroid gland to 131I contributed more than 50% of the total thyroid dose in 45% of the study subjects. The uncertainties in the individual stochastic doses were characterized by a mean geometric standard deviation of 2.0, 1.8, 2.0, and 2.6 for external irradiation, inhalation of 131I, inhalation of short-lived radionuclides, and residential exposure, respectively. The models used for dose calculations were validated against instrument measurements done shortly after the accident. Results of the validation showed that thyroid doses could be estimated retrospectively for Chernobyl cleanup workers two to three decades after the accident with a reasonable degree of reliability.