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A Holistic Approach to Assessment of Population Exposure to Radiation

Challenges and Initiatives of a Regulatory Authority

Askounis, P.; Boziari, A.; Carinou, E.; Drikos, G.; Economides, S.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Housiadas, C.; Kalathaki, M.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Karabetsos, E.; Kehagia, K.; Kolovou, M.; Koukorava, C.; Lasithiotakis, M.; Makridakis, T.; Maltezos, A.; Mitrakos, D.; Nikolaki, M.; Nikolaou, M.; Nicolaou, P.; Petri, A.; Potiriadis, C.; Raftopoulos, S.; Simantirakis, G.; Tafili, V.; Veltsos, C.; Vogiatzi, S.; Xarchoulakos, D.C.; Zourari, K.1

doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000912

A regulatory authority for radiation safety should continuously evaluate and improve the national safety framework, in line with current requirements and standards. In this context, the Greek Atomic Energy Commission initiated a series of concerted actions. The radiation dose to the population due to public and medical exposures was assessed. The assessment of dose due to public exposure was based on measurements of radon concentrations in dwellings, radionuclide concentrations in environmental samples, and air dose rates; the assessment of dose due to medical exposure was based on dose measurements for typical examinations or procedures and data on their frequency. The mean effective dose to a member of the population was found to be 4.5 mSv (1.8 mSv and 2.7 mSv from medical and public exposures, respectively). Regarding occupational exposure, aircrew dose assessment, eye lens monitoring, and the national dose registry were significantly improved. With respect to artificial tanning (sun beds), the ultraviolet radiation produced was assessed and the practices followed were observed. Results demonstrated exceedance of the 0.3 W m−2 erythema effective irradiance limit set in European Union standards by 63.5% of the sun beds measured, along with general noncompliance with standards. An overarching activity was the upgrade of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission information system in order to collect and disseminate radiation data electronically, launch a networking strategy for interaction with stakeholders, and facilitate the process of regulatory control. In response to the above findings, regulatory actions have been initiated.

1Greek Atomic Energy Commission (EEAE), PO Box 60092, Agia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens, Greece.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

For correspondence contact: Kamenopoulou Vasiliki, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna International Center, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 25 April 2018)

© 2018 by the Health Physics Society