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Use of Transportable Radiation Detection Instruments to Assess Internal Contamination from Intakes of Radionuclides Part II

Calibration Factors and ICAT Computer Program

Anigstein, Robert; Olsher, Richard H.; Loomis, Donald A.; Ansari, Armin

doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000572

The detonation of a radiological dispersion device or other radiological incidents could result in widespread releases of radioactive materials and intakes of radionuclides by affected individuals. Transportable radiation monitoring instruments could be used to measure radiation from gamma-emitting radionuclides in the body for triaging individuals and assigning priorities to their bioassay samples for in vitro assessments. The present study derived sets of calibration factors for four instruments: the Ludlum Model 44‐2 gamma scintillator, a survey meter containing a 2.54 × 2.54-cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Captus 3000 thyroid uptake probe, which contains a 5.08 × 5.08‐cm NaI(Tl) crystal; the Transportable Portal Monitor Model TPM-903B, which contains two 3.81 × 7.62 × 182.9‐cm polyvinyltoluene plastic scintillators; and a generic instrument, such as an ionization chamber, that measures exposure rates. The calibration factors enable these instruments to be used for assessing inhaled or ingested intakes of any of four radionuclides: 60Co, 131I, 137Cs, and 192Ir. The derivations used biokinetic models embodied in the DCAL computer software system developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Monte Carlo simulations using the MCNPX radiation transport code. The three physical instruments were represented by MCNP models that were developed previously. The affected individuals comprised children of five ages who were represented by the revised Oak Ridge National Laboratory pediatric phantoms, and adult men and adult women represented by the Adult Reference Computational Phantoms described in Publication 110 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. These calibration factors can be used to calculate intakes; the intakes can be converted to committed doses by the use of tabulated dose coefficients. These calibration factors also constitute input data to the ICAT computer program, an interactive Microsoft Windows-based software package that estimates intakes of radionuclides and cumulative and committed effective doses, based on measurements made with these instruments. This program constitutes a convenient tool for assessing intakes and doses without consulting tabulated calibration factors and dose coefficients.

*S. Cohen & Associates, 1608 Spring Hill Road, Vienna, VA 2218; †HP Consulting, LLC, 20 Grand Canyon Drive, Los Alamos, NM 87544; ‡Radiation Studies Branch, EHHE, NCEH, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Atlanta, GA 30341‐3717.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

For correspondence contact: Robert Anigstein, S. Cohen & Associates, 740 West End Avenue, Apt. 95A, New York, NY 10025, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 15 July 2016)

© 2016 by the Health Physics Society