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Snyder, Sandra F.; Traub, Richard J.*

doi: 10.1097/HP.0b013e3181c03cc4
Review Article

In vivo monitoring facilities determine the absence or presence of internally entrained radionuclides. To be of greatest utility, the detection systems must detect and quantify the nuclides of interest at levels of interest. Phantoms have been developed to improve measurements at in vivo monitoring facilities. Since the 1970's, the torso phantom originally developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL, or simply “Livermore”) continues to be a well-used tool at lung monitoring facilities, especially for the detection of low-energy photons from transuranics. The history of its development from need through design development and current availability is summarized. The authors have taken the LLNL phantom one step further by scanning the phantom surface and announce the availability of the scan files on the Internet.

* Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352.

For correspondence contact: Sandra F. Snyder, PNNL, MS K3-54, Richland, WA 99352, or email at

(Manuscript accepted 8 September 2009)

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