The effective doses and attenuation lengths for concrete and iron were measured for the design of heavy ion facilities. Neutrons were produced through the reaction of copper, carbon, and lead bombarded by carbon ions at 230 and 400 MeV·A, neon ions at 400 and 600 MeV·A, and silicon ions at 600 and 800 MeV·A. The detectors used were a Linus and a Andersson-Braun-type rem counter and a detector based on the activation of a plastic scintillator. Representative effective dose rates (in units of 10−8 μSv h−1 pps−1 at 1 m from the incident target surface, where pps means particles per second) and the attenuation lengths (in units of m) were 9.4 × 104, 0.46 for carbon ions at 230 MeV·A; 8.9 × 105, 0.48 for carbon ions at 400 MeV·A; 9.3 × 105, 0.48 for neon ions at 400 MeV·A; 3.8 × 106, 0.50 for neon ions at 600 MeV·A; 3.9 × 106, 0.50 for silicon ions at 600 MeV·A; and 1.1 × 107, 0.51 for silicon ions at 800 MeV·A. The attenuation provided by an iron plate approximately 20 cm thick (nearly equal to the attenuation length) corresponded to that of a 50-cm block of concrete in the present energy range. Miscellaneous results, such as the angular distributions of the neutron effective dose, narrow beam attenuation experiments, decay of gamma-ray doses after the bombardment of targets, doses around an irradiation room, order effects in the multi-layer (concrete and iron) shielding, the doses from different targets, the doses measured with a scintillator activation detector, the gamma-ray doses out of walls and the ratio of the response between the Andersson-Braun-type and the Linus rem counters are also reported.
* National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1, Anagawa, Inaga-Ward, Chiba-City, Japan, 263-8555.
For correspondence or reprints contact:Y. Kumamoto at the above address, or email at email@example.com.
(Manuscript received 29 June 2004; revised manuscript received 21 October 2004, accepted 7 January 2005)