Concentrations of 239,240Pu and the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were measured in rib samples from 55 non-occupationally exposed Colorado residents. Samples were collected at autopsy during 1975–1979 under an earlier study intended to compare plutonium levels in liver and lung of people who lived at various proximities to the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) near Denver. Overall, median 239,240Pu concentrations from rib samples were 100, 80, and 57 μBq g−1 ash weight for area locations A, B, and C, respectively. Area A encompassed subjects who lived within 25 km of RFETS, area B was between 25 and 50 km from RFETS, and area C included all of Colorado outside 50 km from the site and east of the continental divide. The corresponding median plutonium skeletal burdens estimated for these area locations were 146, 93, and 71 mBq, respectively. A statistically significant difference was noted only between plutonium concentrations in male rib samples and their skeletal burdens from area A compared to area C. However, based on a regression analysis of all study subjects, distance from RFETS was not statistically correlated to plutonium rib concentrations or skeletal burdens in this sample. Overall, median 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios were 0.20, 0.18, and 0.17 for areas A, B, and C, respectively. Although higher 239,240Pu concentrations and skeletal burdens were indicated in area A males than area C males, we cannot conclude that RFETS releases may have caused this difference. The decreasing trends in the 240Pu/239Pu ratios with distance from RFETS are contrary with such a conclusion and strongly indicate that the material was primarily global fallout rather than weapons-grade plutonium that was processed at RFETS. Furthermore, there are other plausible explanations for the differences observed between area A and C residents. These include a decreasing trend in global fallout from the Rocky Mountain foothills eastward, smoking history differences, sample selection criteria, and possibly other unidentified factors. Nevertheless, estimated levels of total plutonium in this sample of Colorado residents were low and within the range of reported literature values for general, world-wide populations.