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The distribution and excretion of thallium in the rat has been studied following injection of Tl204 by six routes: intramuscular, intraperitoneal, intratracheal, intravenous, oral and subcutaneous. In all cases absorption is rapid and distribution diffuse with comparatively large quantities found in the kidneys. It is assumed that thallium is generally incorporated into the intracellular fluids. There is no day to day variation in relative organ thallium content with the exception of hair in which there is an actual build-up of thallium with time. Any organ except hair may therefore be said to have the same biological half time as the body burden (3.3 days) which follows a single exponential function extrapolating to 100 per cent at zero time. Excretion assumes the same pattern after all routes of injection with some minor exceptions. There is a fecal to urinary ratio of between 2 and 5, a greater rate of decrease in thallium content being found in the urine than in the feces. A maximum permissible body burden and maximum permissible concentrations for air and water have been calculated for Tl204 with kidney as critical organ. Assuming body burden equilibrium at about 30 days exposure on an industrial routine, a suitable method for bioassay has been suggested.

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