Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

The Prevalence of Vegetative and Minimally Conscious States: A Systematic Review and Methodological Appraisal

Pisa, Federica Edith MD, MStat; Biasutti, Emanuele MD; Drigo, Daniela MD; Barbone, Fabio MD, DrPH

The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: July/August 2014 - Volume 29 - Issue 4 - p E23–E30
doi: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e3182a4469f
Original Articles

Objectives: To systematically review prevalence studies of vegetative state (VS) and minimally conscious state (MCS) in geographically defined populations, to appraise study methods and assess sources of heterogeneity.

Methods: MEDLINE, EBM Reviews, and EMBASE databases were searched using key terms. Two reviewers independently identified pertinent articles and screened the references for additional studies. Studies measuring the prevalence of VS and/or MCS in a defined population were included, and information on characteristics, methods, and results was extracted. Heterogeneity was quantified through the statistic I 2.

Results: We identified 5 cross-sectional prevalence surveys of VS and 1 of MCS. Prevalence ranged from 0.2 cases per 100 000 inhabitants to 3.4 for VS and was 1.5 per 100 000 for MCS. Relevant heterogeneity (I 2 = 99.0%) prevented us from calculating a summary estimate. The prevalence of trauma cases varied from 21.9% to 53.8%. Variability pertaining to diagnostic criteria, definition of case, and methods of ascertainment was found.

Conclusion: In the few prevalence studies of VS and MCS that were identified, the estimates showed high variability and could not be pooled. Future studies should consider using comparable methods for the definition, ascertainment, and confirmation of cases.

Supplemental Digital Content is Available in the Text.

Institute of Hygiene and Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Udine (Drs Pisa, Drigo, and Barbone), Unit for the Rehabilitation of Acquired Neuropsychological Disturbances, Institute of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine Gervasutta Hospital (Dr Biasutti), and Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Department of Biological and Medical Sciences, University of Udine (Dr Barbone), Udine, Italy.

Corresponding Author: Federica Edith Pisa, MD, MStat, Institute of Hygiene and Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Udine, Via Colugna 50, 33100 Udine, Italy (

The authors thank Ms Vittoria Tosolini for her assistance in preparing the manuscript for submission.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins