Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Share this article on:

Predictors of Outcome After Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Pilot Study

Leininger, Shelley PhD; Strong, Carrie-Ann H. PsyD, ABPP-Cn; Donders, Jacobus PhD, ABPP-Cn, Rp

Section Editor(s): Caplan, Bruce PhD, ABPP; Bogner, Jennifer PhD, ABPP

The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation: March/April 2014 - Volume 29 - Issue 2 - p 109–116
doi: 10.1097/HTR.0b013e3182860506
Original Articles

Objective: To determine factors affecting outcome of comprehensive outpatient rehabilitation of individuals who sustained a mild traumatic brain injury.

Participants: From a 4-year series of referrals, 49 nonconsecutive participants met criteria for mild traumatic brain injury (ie, loss of consciousness <30 minutes, Glasgow Coma Scale score >12).

Setting: Outpatient, community-based postconcussion clinic at a rehabilitation hospital.

Main Measures: Participants and therapy staff completed the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory–Fourth Edition (MPAI-4) at the initiation and conclusion of treatment. Participants were also administered the Trail Making Test at the start of treatment.

Results: Participants generally gave poorer adaptability ratings than staff at the beginning and discharge of treatment. Regression analyses revealed that after controlling for baseline ratings, psychiatric history was associated with worse participant-rated MPAI-4 Adjustment scores at treatment discharge, whereas better Trail Making Test Part B performance at initiation of treatment predicted better participant-rated MPAI-4 Ability at treatment discharge.

Conclusions: Premorbid demographic and baseline neurocognitive factors should be taken into account prior to comprehensive treatment of mild traumatic brain injury, as they can influence long-term outcomes. Adaptability ratings from both staff and participants can be useful in gaining different perspectives and assessing factors affecting recovery.

Mary Free Bed Rehabilitation Hospital, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

Corresponding Author: Carrie-Ann H. Strong, PsyD, ABPP-Cn, Psychology Service, Mary Free Bed Rehabilitation Hospital, 235 Wealthy SE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 (

This work was supported by a grant from the Campbell Foundation.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

© 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins