To investigate the association of psychosocial outcome 10 years following traumatic brain injury (TBI) with demographic variables, injury severity, current cognitive functioning, emotional state, aggression, alcohol use, and fatigue.
Fifty-three participants with mild to very severe TBI sustained 10 years previously and significant others.
Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale, Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, NFI Aggression scale, Fatigue Severity Scale, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, neuropsychological tests of attention/processing speed, memory, and executive function.
Psychosocial functioning was lowest in the occupational activity domain and highest in the living skills domains. Variables including education, posttraumatic amnesia duration, numerous cognitive measures, concurrent fatigue, aggression, anxiety, and depression were all significantly associated with psychosocial outcome, although the strength of correlations varied between ratings of participants with TBI and relatives. Posttraumatic amnesia duration was most strongly associated with psychosocial outcome measured by relatives; anxiety, aggression, and depression were the strongest predictors when ratings were assigned by participants with TBI. Self-reported fatigue, depression, and alcohol use were the strongest predictors of aggression.
It is important to address problems with anxiety, depression, fatigue, and alcohol use as a possible means of improving long-term psychosocial outcome following TBI.