Review ArticleTranscranial Magnetic Stimulation A Possible Treatment for TBIPape, Theresa Louise-Bender DrPH, MA, CCC-SLP/L; Rosenow, Joshua MD; Lewis, Gwyn PhD Author Information Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, Hines, Ill, the Marianjoy Rehabilitation Hospital, Wheaton, Ill, the Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Northwestern University, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Office of Medical Education (1574), Chicago, Ill, and the Institute for Health Services Research and Policy Studies, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill (Dr Pape); the Department of Neurosurgery, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Ill, and Functional Neurosurgery Program, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, Chicago, Ill (Dr Rosenow); and the Sensory Motor Performance Program, The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, Chicago, Ill (Dr Lewis). Corresponding author: Theresa Louise-Bender Pape, DrPH, MA, CCC-SPL/L, Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Research Service, Edward Hines Jr. VA Hospital, PO Box 5000 (M/C 151H), Hines, IL 60141 (e-mail: [email protected]). Funding for this study was provided by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), Veterans Health Affairs, Rehabilitation Research and Development Service, through an advanced research career development award to Dr Theresa Pape (B3302K). The Phase I clinical trial described in this article is also supported by the General Clinical Research Center (GCRC) of Northwestern University's Feinberg School of Medicine. The GCRC is supported by grant M01 RR-00048 from the National Center for Research Resources, National Institutes of Health. In-kind contributions from Marianjoy Rehabilitation Hospital, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, and The Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago also support the work described in this article. Dr Pape's research in severe traumatic brain injury is also supported philanthropically by the Nick Kot Charity, a not-for-profit organization. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 21(5):p 437-451, September 2006. Buy Abstract The purpose of this article is to outline the principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), to summarize the existing use of TMS as a prognostic indicator and as a therapeutic device in clinical populations, and to highlight the potential of repetitive TMS (rTMS) as an intervention for traumatic brain injury. TMS is a painless method to stimulate the human brain. Repeated applications of TMS can influence brain plasticity and cortical reorganization through stimulation-induced alterations in neuronal excitability. Existing evidence has demonstrated positive outcomes in people with motor disorders and psychiatric conditions who have received rTMS as a therapeutic intervention. These findings suggest that rTMS may be a promising treatment for people with traumatic brain injury. © 2006 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.