Lawton R. Burns, Ph.D., M.B.A., is James Joo-Jin Kim Professor, Department of Health Care Systems, The Wharton School, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Stephen L. Walston, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Director, Graduate Program in Health Administration, School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Indianapolis.
Jeffrey A. Alexander, Ph.D., is Richard C. Jelinek Professor, Department of Health Services Management & Policy, School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Howard S. Zuckerman, Ph.D., is Professor, Department of Health Services, School of Public Health & Community Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.
Ronald M. Andersen, Ph.D., is the Fred W. and Pamela K. Wasserman Professor and Chair, Health Services and Professor of Sociology, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California.
Paul R. Torrens, M.D., M.P.H, is Professor of Health Services, UCLA School of Public Health, Los Angeles, California.
Diana Hilberman, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor and Director of the MPH Program, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles.
The research on which this article is based was supported by a grant fron the Center for Health Management Research. The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments on an earlier draft.