Matthew D. McHugh, PhD, JD, MPH, RN, FAAN, is The Rosemarie Greco Term Endowed Associate Professor in Advocacy, Center for Health Outcomes Policy Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. E-mail: [email protected].
Linda H. Aiken, PhD, RN, FAAN, is The Claire M. Fagin Leadership Professor of Nursing, Center for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Myra E. Eckenhoff, BA, is a research assistant at theCenter for Health Outcomes and Policy Research, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Lawton R. Burns, PhD, is James Joo-Jin Kim Professor, Wharton Center for Health Management and Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.
Funding for this study was provided by the National Institute of Nursing Research (R01-NR-004513, Aiken), the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Aiken), Kaiser Permanente (McHugh), and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Nurse Faculty Scholars program (McHugh).
An author (McHugh) has received funding from Kaiser Permanente; Kaiser Permanente had no input, review, or influence on this paper. The authors have disclosed no other significant relationship with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.