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Male infertility and environmental factors

Perheentupa, Antti, MD, PhDa,b,

doi: 10.1097/GRH.0000000000000028
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Semen quality in men is decreasing. Numerous chemicals act as endocrine-disrupting agents and their detrimental effect on fertility and spermatogenesis has been shown in rodent studies. Consequences in humans are challenging to study and effects of fetal exposure on fertility are apparent only 2 decades later. Appropriate animal models are needed to study the reproductive effects of the thousands of chemicals that humans come in contact with. The burden of proof of chemical safety must shift from the individual and health care provider to the manufacturers similar to the licensing of medical drugs.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial License 4.0 (CCBY-NC), where it is permissible to download, share, remix, transform, and buildup the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

aInstitute of Biomedicine, Research Centre for Integrative Physiology and Pharmacology University of Turku

bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Hospital, Turku, Finland

Published online 14 May 2019

Sponsorships or competing interests that may be relevant to content are disclosed at the end of this article.

Corresponding author. Address: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Turku University Hospital, Kiinamyllynkatu 4-8, Turku 20520, Finland. E-mail address: antti.perheentupa@utu.fi (A. Perheentupa).

Received August 27, 2018

Accepted December 14, 2018

Copyright © 2019 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer on behalf of the International Federation of Fertility Societies. All rights reserved.