This is a case report of fetal leukemia associated with hydramnios.
When the hydramnios was treated with amnioreduction, near-term bradycardia was recorded ultrasonographically, resulting in immediate cesarean delivery. At birth, neonatal leukemia was diagnosed and there was no evidence of chromosomal abnormalities. The infant died of pulmonary hemorrhage. Autopsy showed umbilical venous embolization with tumor cells, and there was arterial invasion of the vessel wall by tumor.
Fetal leukemia is extremely rare, and its prenatal diagnosis is difficult. In cases of hepatomegaly, fetal leukemia should be considered in the differential diagnosis.